The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler

YMSM 047
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks

Artist: James McNeill Whistler
Date: 1864
Collection: Philadelphia Museum of Art
Accession Number: 1112
Medium: oil
Support: canvas
Size: 93.3 x 61.3 cm (36 x 24 1/8")
Signature: 'Whistler 1864'
Inscription: see above
Frame: 1864 Whistler, incised decoration [13.6 cm]

Date

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks may have been started in 1863, but it is signed and dated 1864. 1

1863: It may be the ‘un-finished Chinese' picture that, according to Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882), was bought from Whistler by the London art dealer Ernest Gambart (1814-1902) in December 1863, but this is not certain. 2

1864: Whistler wrote to Ignace-Henri-Jean-Théodore Fantin-Latour (1836-1904) on 3 February 1864:

'J'ai un tableau pour l'Academie ici - je t'en enverrai une esquisse prochainement - C'est rempli de superbes porcelaines tirés de ma collection, et comme arrangement et couleur est bien - Cela represente une marchande de porcelaine, une Chinoise en train de peindre un pot.' 3

Translation: 'I have a picture for the Academy here - I shall send you a sketch very soon - It is filled with superb porcelain taken from my collection, and is good in arrangement and colour - It shows a porcelain merchant, a Chinese woman painting a pot.'

George du Maurier (1834-1896) also recorded in February 1864, 'Jimmie has painted or nearly painted a Chinese woman which Gambard [sic] has bought for 100 £ – I hear it's very fine.' 4 On 10 February 1864 Whistler's mother, Anna Matilda Whistler (1804-1881), described both Whistler's inspiration and work on this painting:

'Are you an admirer of old China? this Artistic abode of my son is ornamented by a very rare collection of Japanese & Chinese, he considers the paintings upon them the finest specimens of Art & his companions (Artists) who resort here for an evening relaxation occasionally, get enthusiastic as the[y] handle & examine the curious subjects pourtrayed [sic], some of the pieces more than two centuries old, he has also a Japanese book of painting, unique in their estimation.

You will not wonder that Jemies inspirations should be (under such influences), of the same cast, he is finishing at his Studio (for when he paints from life, his models generally are hired & he has for the last fortnight had a fair damsel sitting as a Japanese study) a very beautiful picture for which he is to be paid one hundred guineas without the frame that is always separate. I'll try to describe this inspiration to you. A girl seated as if intent upon painting a beautiful jar which she rests on her lap, a quiet & easy attitude, she sits beside a shelf which is covered with Chinese Matting a buff color, upon which several pieces of China & a pretty fan are arranged as if for purchasers, a Scind Rug carpets the floor (Jemie has several in his rooms, & none others), upon it by her side is a large jar & all these are fac-similes of those around me in this room - which is more than half Studio for here he has an Easel & paints generally - tho he dignifies it as our withdrawing room - for here is our bright fire & my post. To finish now my poor attempt at describing the Chinese picture which I hope may come home finished this week - there is a table covd with a crimson cloth, on which there is a cup (Japanese) scarlet in hue, a sofa covd with buff matting, too, but each so distinctly separate, even the shadow of the handle of the fan, no wonder Jemie is not a rapid painter, for his conceptions are so nice, he takes out & puts it over & off until his genius is satisfied.' 5

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, framed
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, framed

The painting was completed and shown at the 96th Exhibition of the Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1864 (cat. no. 593) as 'Die Lange Lizen - of the six marks'.

Images

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, photograph, 1892, Goupil Album, GUL Whistler PH5/2
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, photograph, 1892, Goupil Album, GUL Whistler PH5/2

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, in Мир искусства [Mir Iskusstva], vol. 9, 1903, repr. p. 68
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, in Мир искусства [Mir Iskusstva], vol. 9, 1903, repr. p. 68

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, framed
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, framed

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, frame detail
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, frame detail

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, frame detail
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, frame detail

Sketch of 'Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks', Library of Congress
Sketch of 'Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks', Library of Congress

Caprice in Purple and Gold: The Golden Screen, Freer Gallery of Art
Caprice in Purple and Gold: The Golden Screen, Freer Gallery of Art

The 1903 image in Mir Iskusstva has been touched up, making the woman's face thinner, with a pointed chin, and a hard outline. It was probably based on the 1892 Goupil photograph.

Subject

Titles

The title evolved gradually, as follows:

The title Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks is based on Whistler's 1892 title, regularised to conform with other titles.

In 1878 it was listed rather inaccurately by James Anderson Rose (1819-1890), when he was preparing a brief for the Whistler v. Ruskin trial, as 'Lange Lisen who pose in the [tall?] jars of China & Japan'. 13 The 1980 catalogue explained:

' "Lange Lijzen" is Dutch for "long Elizas" and was the Delft name for the blue and white Chinese porcelain decorated with figures of "long ladies". The "Six Marks" were the potter's marks, giving the signature and date, on the bottom of the vases. One of Whistler's own "lange lijzen" jars of the K'ang Hs'I Dynasty (1662-1722) appears in the painting and the 'Six Marks' decorate the roundels on the frame he designed for it.' 14

Description

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art

Whistler's mother's description of the painting when it was still under construction is interesting:

'A girl seated as if intent upon painting a beautiful jar which she rests on her lap, a quiet & easy attitude, she sits beside a shelf which is covered with Chinese Matting a buff color, upon which several pieces of China & a pretty fan are arranged as if for purchasers, a Scind Rug carpets the floor ... upon it by her side is a large jar & all these are fac-similes of those around me in this room ... there is a table covd with a crimson cloth, on which there is a cup (Japanese) scarlet in hue, a sofa covd with buff matting.' 15

It is a figure composition in vertical format, showing a young woman seated, leaning back and facing three-quarter left, looking down at her work. She has dark hair, arranged in a large bun on top of her head, and adorned with a red kanzashi (hair ornament.) 16 She wears a very long narrow patterned navy scarf over a cream robe with wide sleeves, richly embroidered with flowers. Under this is a black dress also embroidered with flowers, leaves and scrolls. The sleeves end in a broad band of luminous orangey-pink, trimmed with black and white. Her left hand holds a large blue and white jar, and her right hand (covered by the pink edging of the sleeve) is raised, holding a pencil-like brush with orangey-red handle.

Behind her is a wooden cabinet at left, and table at right. On the cabinet is blue and white porcelain – a cup and saucer at left, a small jar decorated with hyacinths, a large bowl decorated with fish, and, in front of the latter, a large covered jar with a figurative design. Behind the cup and jar is a black fan decorated with a heron, and behind that, a black tray.

The jar she holds is decorated with figures of women in an interior. On the table to right is a dark blue jar, several brushes, a book with a grey patterned cover, and a red bowl or cup with a cover. On the floor at lower right is a large covered blue and white pot. Her scarf trails right down onto the carpet at right. The carpet is richly coloured and patterned in beige, browns and reds. The scene is lit from the right, casting shadows to left, and with the upper right corner deeply shadowed. There, an orange scroll bears the signature and date written vertically.

Site

Whistler's sitting room cum studio in 7 Lindsey Row, Chelsea, London.

Sitter

Joanna Hiffernan (b. ca 1843-d.1886). She was described by Whistler's mother as 'a fair damsel.' 17

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art

Caprice in Purple and Gold: The Golden Screen, Freer Gallery of Art
Caprice in Purple and Gold: The Golden Screen, Freer Gallery of Art

This is the first of several specifically Asian subjects, which include La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine y050, Variations in Flesh Colour and Green: The Balcony y056, and Caprice in Purple and Gold: The Golden Screen y060. Joanna Hiffernan also posed for the latter.

Technique

Composition

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art

MacDonald discusses the Asian accessories and dress as follows:

'Whistler’s work was given new impetus and direction as Japanese goods flooded into the West following the American Commodore Perry’s arrival in Japan in 1855. By 1863, Whistler was avidly combing the junk-shops of Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Paris for oriental artefacts, and by December, he had started his first oriental subject painting, Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks ...

A conventional Victorian genre subject, it shows his Irish model (Joanna Hiffernan) surrounded by miscellaneous far-eastern finds, including a “lange lijzen” jar of the K’ang Hs’i Dynasty. There was no attempt at an Oriental pose or composition, despite the Chinese chair, robes and porcelain, a circular Japanese fan and lacquer tray. This combination of eastern and western artefacts with Western models dressed up in exotic clothes recurs frequently in Whistler’s work.

The embroidered patterns on her robe are traditional Chinese symbols. The elaborate arabesques of butterflies in rich colours alternate with bright leaves and pale flowers (peonies, chrysanthemums and buds) embroidered on cream silk. The black kimono underneath is embroidered with delicate sprays of flowers among narrow leaves.

… The kimono from the Lange Leizen reappears in Caprice in Purple and Gold: The Golden Screen teamed with a dark pink and gold scarf. ' 18

Sketch of 'Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks', Library of Congress
Sketch of 'Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks', Library of Congress

No studies are known for the painting but Whistler made a rough drawing of it – Sketch of 'Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks' m1105 – in a list of paintings in 1886.

Technique

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art

Whistler said, in February 1864, that he found the subject difficult to paint, and he kept rubbing parts out: 'Mais c'est dificile! et je gratte tant! - Il y a des fois où je crois avoir apris des choses - et puis je suis fort découragé.' 19 Whistler's mother lengthy description of the painting in February 1864 confirms Whistler's comment: 'Jemie is not a rapid painter, for his conceptions are so nice, he takes out & puts it over & off until his genius is satisfied.' 20

The 1980 catalogue summarised the subject and technique as follows:

'A European model is posed in a studio, painted with a robust, European technique, and with, for Whistler, a high degree of finish. The difficulties Whistler found in achieving this finish are revealed in his own letters and those of his mother but are not reflected in the work. It is a complex and satisfying composition, painted carefully but with rich brushwork and a glowing harmony of colour.' 21

The brushwork is discussed further in Whistler, Women and Fashion:

'The sultry pink of the robe's broad sleeve-band with its black and white border is painted with broad brushes; patches of short strokes, scumbled over the grain of the canvas, convey the texture of material catching the light, while longer strokes convey the fabric folds. Single strokes with narrower round bristle and fine pointed sable brushes define the individual shape of leaves and buds. The vigorous technique, thick paint and vibrant colour were entirely in the Western tradition. The robes inspired a range of brushstrokes and attention to colour and detail new in Whistler’s work.' 22

Conservation History

When Whistler asked the owners to lend the painting to his Goupil exhibition in 1892, he mentioned cleaning it as a priority:

'Over and above all other reasons it is to Mr Leathart's interest that I should see my picture and have it properly cleaned and varnished under my own superintendance. [sic]

All paintings require this attention for the sake of their own preservation, and I am happy to say that all the owners of my various works are glad that I should in this way care for them.' 23

The painting was cleaned and revarnished before its exhibition, but James Leathart (1820-1895) refused to pay for this, and wrote to Boussod, Valadon & Co.:

'If you washed and cleaned my picture by Whistler it was not done on my behalf. I lent the picture for your Exhibition at Mr Whistler's desire supported by you, and I am surprised that after having favoured you & him by the loan of the picture, you should now claim of me some expense incurred by its exhibition!!' 24

The company replied:

'It was at the instigation and under the careful superintendence of Mr Whistler that the careful and, as he considered, absolutely necessary process of cleaning was carried out. Your telegram consenting to the cleaning seemed to us to imply your willingness to bear the expense. As this work has certainly improved both the condition and appearance of the "Lange Leizen", we would ask you to reconsider whether it could not be charged to your account.' 25

Leathart refused to reconsider. 26 Whistler held this against him for some time!

'Mr. Leathart refused absolutely to pay for the cleaning & varnishing of his picture, "The Lange Leize of the Six Marks," which came from his home in a filthy condition of grime & neglect. - He sold it for six or eight hundred - He had paid me £80 - or 60.' 27

Surprisingly, the Pennells in 1921 described the painting as 'a wreck', commenting, 'The restorer too is abroad and works have been utterly ruined, notably The Lange Leizen in the Johnson Collection, all the skin cleaned, scraped, scrubbed off it.' 28 This is an exaggeration, because it has by no means been skinned and scraped.

Frame

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, framed
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, framed

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, frame detail
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, frame detail

1864: Whistler frame, incised decoration: raised flat outer edge with applied cross-hatch/lacquer box pattern composition; inner frieze of incised whorls and six incised roundels of Chinese characters; incised astragal site edge. 29

It was possibly made by Joseph Green, the preferred frame maker for Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) and the Pre-Raphaelites, in 1864.

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, frame detail
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, frame detail

The six roundels are placed at each corner and at the left/right midpoints. Each are incised with a different Chinese character, resembling the six marks often located on the underside of a piece of blue-and-white porcelain. These marks indicate the reign or date on which an individual piece of porcelain was made, plus additional details regarding the producer or craftsman. Whistler may have seen these marks on the underside of a dish he collected and simply applied them to the surface of his frame.

The Chinese symbols on the frame have been translated as: (right side, top to bottom) Great, Ch'ing, K'ang; (left side) Hs'I, Year, Made: this therefore reads 'Made during the reign of Emperor K’ang and H’si of the great Ch’ing [Manchu] Dynasty.' 30

The Philadelphia handbook comments:

'Although Whistler's depiction of a Chinese pottery shop is much more akin to contemporary genre scenes than to his later, more adventurous compositions influenced by Japanese prints, he carved the potter's marks into the gilded frame to enhance the exoticism of the subject.' 31

However Whistler definitely did not do the carving himself.

The frame is believed to have remained on the painting since 1864 and surprisingly remained untouched during the Goupil Gallery preparations of 1892.

The museum gives the size framed as 118.3 x 87.3 x 7 cm (46 9/16 x 34 3/8 x 2 ¾").

History

Provenance

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, Philadelphia Museum of Art

It may be the ‘un-finished Chinese' picture that, according to Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882), was bought from Whistler by Ernest Gambart in December 1863: 'The picture of Whistler's which I mentioned was the unfinished Chinese one, since bought by Gambart & which was, as I thought, the one about which you wished to know.' 32 Early in the following year, in February 1864, George du Maurier (1834-1896) wrote, 'Jimmie has painted or nearly painted a Chinese woman which Gambard [sic] has bought for 100 £.' 33 According to Fleming, the painting was exhibited by Gambart in London in January 1866, and was sold in the mid-1860s to James Leathart of Newcastle. 34 Whistler later claimed that he had sold it to Leathart for £60 or 80. 35

The Leatharts decided to sell it, through Goupil's, early in 1893, as D. C. Thomson wrote nervously to tell Whistler:

'So far as I know none of your pictures have recently changed hands, but we are trying to sell one for the owner - I have promised him not to give his name at the present. But in confidence I will tell you it is the Lange Leizen & we ask £800 only for it. I feel as if I am putting my head in the lions mouth in telling you, but there is nothing to be upset about I assure you for the owner is simply "hard up".' 36

It was bought by J. G. Johnson for £600, as Thomson reported: 'After a good deal of negotiation we have sold the "Lange Leizen" to Mr. John G. Johnson of Philadelphia U S A. for £600. He made this offer & said he could not give more & we have at length arranged the matter with the Newcastle owner.' 37 The painting eventually went with Johnson's generous bequest to the City of Philadelphia.

Exhibitions

1864: Whistler spoke to an Academician in advance of the selection for the Royal Academy, and reported to Fantin-Latour, 'je n'ai pas trop voulu presser les questions ... enfin j'ai pu voir que ma Japponaise l'a énormement plu et qu'elle aura une bonne place' (Translation: 'I did not want to ply him too much with questions ... anyway I could see that he liked my Japanese woman greatly and that she will have a good place'). 38 Numerous press cuttings kept by the artist reveal the varying reactions of the art critics to the painting. 39 The Times critic, for instance, was strongly critical of Whistler's exhibits for showing 'unquestionable power, accompanied by almost defiant eccentricity':

'Mr. Whistler has so much power, that it is a thousand pities to see it marred by fantastic tricks, such as have led him to invest the hideous forms we find in his Chinese vase-paintress in such exquisitely and subtly harmonized colour; or to unite an ostentatious slovenliness of execution with the most carefully calculated choice and arrangement of hues; or when he can draw so well if he chooses, to give us objects as much out of perspective as the great blue vase in the foreground of his Chinese picture.' 40

The Athenaeum review of 14 May 1864, similarly, dismissed the sitter as a 'not very fair Celestial' and the subject as 'quaint', but admired the 'beautiful harmonies of the woman's robe and of the background', praising it as 'among the finest pieces of colour in the exhibition.' 41

In Fun, William S. Gilbert (1836-1911), of Gilbert and Sullivan fame, published a harsh critique and simple-minded caricature of the painting:

'Mr. Whistler has contributed a dreadful picture (No. 593) of a Chinese potichomaniac. It is appropriately styled “Die lange Lizen, of the six marks,” and everybody will at once see why. She is a singular young woman, who possesses an original way of sitting down, which at once recommends her to the notice of persons on the lookout for novelty.' 42

By contrast, on 16 May 1864 the Daily Telegraph art critic commented enthusiastically:

'Lastly – and lastly here is emphatically intended for a place of honour – we wish to point out to the special attention of visitors the two pictures by Mr Whistler ... a Chinese girl, engaged in painting a small china vase. There are some obvious faults ... The girl ... is herself drawn with Chinese exaggeration, and her face and hands are the least finished portion of the work. But there is nothing in the whole Exhibition which even approaches these pictures in one of the rarest and finest gifts which an oil painter can possess. They have a truth of relative tone in the colouring which seems perfect, and this truth has been gained, not by elaborate handling, but at once. Each touch has been laid in without correction, but laid in, so far as correctness of tone goes, for ever. ... in rich glow and tender brilliancy the figure-scene has no rival.' 43

The Saturday Review of 28 May 1864 expressed similar sentiments, coupling Whistler's directness of application with the technique employed by Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velázquez (1599-1660). The Spectator, found it 'difficult to criticise' Whistler's exhibits, because 'the handicraft is marvellous and the colour very pleasing', but disagreed with comparisons between Whistler's 'sensuous' brushwork and the 'bold dashing' work sometimes seen in the paintings of Velázquez. 44

1866: According to Fleming, the painting was exhibited in London by Gambart in January 1866, but there is no other record of this. 45

Sketch of 'Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks', Library of Congress
Sketch of 'Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks', Library of Congress

1887: Although somewhat vague about how to spell the owner's name or the picture's title, Whistler thought of borrowing it for a proposed exhibition at the Royal Society of British Artists during his Presidency. He sketched it on the verso of a letter, as reproduced above, and listed it as 'Leithard [sic] - somewhere about Newcastle[,] Lange Lize girl painting.' 46 However, when Whistler was forced to resign from the society, the show was called off.

1892: Whistler was still rather vague in the run-up to his major retrospective exhibition at the Goupil Gallery. He wrote to the manager David Croal Thomson (1855-1930):

'Leathard - or Leathardt - in Newcastle - Something to do with lead works - an old buyer of Rossetti, Madox Brown and so on - He has beautiful picture of mine - Write and borrow: "The Lange Leizen," a girl in Japanese dress painting a vase - . Get and send to Richards to clean & varnish.' 47

At this point the owner's wife, Maria Leathart née Hedley (1840-1899), wrote to Whistler expressing some disinclination to lend the picture. However, he replied, with a series of arguments, brandishing both stick and carrot:

'Pray remind Mr Leathart, with my compliments that he has never lent me the picture since it has been in his possession, and therefore I trust I am not abusing his good nature when this time I earnestly beg him to let me have it for a while -

I want him very much to let me exhibit it in this gathered collection at Goupil's in London where it will be for three weeks, but also I want him to let me exhibit it here in Paris. The picture has never been seen in Paris at all, and all my artistic interest is centred in this Country.

Over and above all other reasons it is to Mr Leathart's interest that I should see my picture and have it properly cleaned and varnished under my own superintendance. [sic] ...

Messrs Goupil will insure the painting for whatever sum he likes -

... I do not remember whether Mr Leathart paid me eighty pounds or a hundred for the "Lange Leisen", but at this moment the picture is doubtless worth ten times that amount in the market, and if Mr Leathart would care to sell it, I have no doubt that he could do so for some such sum at the time of its exhibition in France.' 48

Leathart, writing from Gateshead, replied:

'Just a line to say that I have told ... the Goupil Gallery I will send the "Lange Liesen" Picture for exhibition ... upon their giving me a Policy of Insurance for £800 in my favour against all losses & an undertaking they will not copy the picture in any way nor allow it to be copied by any person whilst in their possession ... I note you say the picture would bring £800 or £1000 in France.' 49

Whistler pressed him for a decision on lending the painting for Paris and/or selling it. 50 When it finally hung at Goupil's, Whistler was delighted with it, writing to his wife, 'The Lange Lizen - is certainly young - but wonderful - wonderful - Such pots & plates & fans! - Such purples & Reds & blues!!' 51 Some critics agreed: The Daily Graphic describing it as 'full of brilliancy and force' and the Athenaeum, while still finding it 'absurd' and complaining of the 'unlovely Chinese vase-painter', commended it as 'fine ... in tone and colour.' 52 Walter Richard Sickert (1860-1942) commented that it contained' passages of astonishing excellence and refinement'. 53

Whistler and his work had undoubtedly gained more acceptance by this date, and the exhibition was on the whole well received, though Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks did not received much individual attention in the press.

Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, photograph, Goupil Album, 1892, GUL Whistler PH5/2
Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, photograph, Goupil Album, 1892, GUL Whistler PH5/2

The publication of the Album of photographs after the Goupil show of 1892 produced problems of accurately rendering the range and tone of colours. Whistler was concerned, as he told D. C. Thomson, 'I am most anxious to see the proofs - and wonder how the Lange Leizen would come out with all the Yellow.' 54 When the album appeared he was disappointed with the effect. 'I don't understand at all the presence of the "Lange Leizen", which it was agreed should not appear', he wrote, 'and I cannot understand the absence of the "Bognor", which surely was one of the most important of the whole collection of pictures!' 55 'Bognor' was Nocturne: Blue and Silver - Bognor y100. Thomson replied that it was Whistler who had decided on the selection and they had made no changes. 56

Bibliography

Catalogues Raisonnés

Authored by Whistler

Catalogues 1855-1905

Newspapers 1855-1905

Journals 1855-1905

Monographs

Books on Whistler

Books, General

Catalogues 1906-Present

COLLECTION:

EXHIBITION:

Journals 1906-Present

Websites

Unpublished

Other


Notes:

1: YMSM 1980 [more] (cat. no. 47) dates it '1863-4'.

2: Rossetti to J. Leathart, 9 December 1863, GUW #12441.

3: 4 January - 3 February 1864 (this description was written on 3 February), GUW #08036.

4: Du Maurier 1951 [more], p. 227.

5: A. M. Whistler to J. H. Gamble, GUW #06522.

6: 96th Exhibition of the Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1864 (cat. no. 593).

7: Whistler to Fantin-Latour, [4 January-3 February 1864], GUW #08036; also [September 1865], GUW #08037.

8: Whistler to J. A. Rose, [November 1878], GUW #08784.

9: Written on a letter from H. Faraday to T. Way, 12 March 1881, GUW #13354.

10: Nocturnes, Marines & Chevalet Pieces, Goupil Gallery, London, 1892 (cat. no. 5).

11: Whistler to E. G. Kennedy, 4 February 1894, GUW #09715.

12: YMSM 1980 [more] (cat. no. 47).

13: [25-26 November 1878], GUW #11914.

14: YMSM 1980 [more] (cat. no. 47).

15: A. M. Whistler to J. H. Gamble, 10-11 February 1864, GUW #06522.

16: See a discussion of the accessories and setting in Ono 2003 [more], pp. 60-65.

17: A. M. Whistler to J. H. Gamble, 10-11 February 1864, GUW #06522.

18: MacDonald 2003 [more], pp. 58-61.

19: 4 January-3 February 1864 (this section written on 3 February), GUW #08036.

20: A. M. Whistler to J. H. Gamble, 10-11 February 1864 GUW #06522.

21: YMSM 1980, op. cit., (cat. no. 47).

22: MacDonald 2003 [more], pp. 58-61. See also MacDonald, Margaret F., Joanna Dunn, and Joyce H. Townsend, 'Painting Joanna Hiffernan', in Margaret F. MacDonald (ed.), The Woman in White: Joanna Hiffernan and James McNeill Whistler, New Haven and Washington, 2020, pp. 33-45.

23: Whistler to Maria Leathart, 29 February 1892, GUW #10061.

24: 4 June 1892, GUW #02503.

25: 5 July 1892, GUW #13296.

26: Leathart to Boussod, Valadon and Co., 6 July 1892, GUW #02502.

27: Whistler to E. G. Kennedy, 4 February 1894, GUW #09715.

28: Pennell 1921C [more], pp. viii, 135.

29: Dr Sarah L. Parkerson Day, Report on frames, 2017; see also Parkerson 2007 [more].

30: Translated by F. Fischer and C. Wilson of the Philadelphia Museum, and John Scott, Department of Chinese Studies, Edinburgh University.

31: Sewell, Darrel, Philadelphia Museum of Art: Handbook of the Collections, Philadelphia, 1995, p. 283.

32: Rossetti to J. Leathart, 9 December 1863, GUW #12441.

33: Du Maurier 1951 [more], p. 227.

34: Flem1978 [more], pp. 202-03, 226.

35: Whistler to E. G. Kennedy, 4 February 1894, GUW #09715.

36: 21 March 1893, GUW #05771.

37: D. C. Thomson to Whistler, 12 April 1893, GUW #05772.

38: [5/26] April [1864], GUW #08038.

39: The Realm, 4 May and 4 June 1864; The Times, London, 5 May 1864; The Daily Telegraph, London, 16 May 1864; The London Review, 21 May 1964; The Saturday Review, 28 May 1864; The Spectator, 18 June 1864; press cuttings kept by Whistler, GUL Whistler PC1, pp. 11, 13, 15, 17.

40: 'Exhibition of the Royal Academy, The Times, London, 5 May 1864, p. 8.

41: Press cutting in GUL PC 1, p. 11; partly quoted by Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, p. 127.

42: 'Our Critic among the Pictures,' Fun, 14 May 1864, pp. 83-84. Online in The Victorian Web at http://www.victorianweb.org.

43: Press cutting in GUL Whistler PC 1, p. 11.

44: The Spectator, London, 18 June 1864; GUL Whistler PC 1, p. 11.

45: Flem1978 [more], pp. 202-03, 226.

46: Whistler, possibly to H. H. Cauty, [February 1887], GUW #08188; Sketch of 'Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks' m1105.

47: 21 February [1892], GUW #08212.

48: 29 February 1892, GUW #10061.

49: 2 March 1892, GUW #02501.

50: 4 March 1892, GUW #07980.

51: Whistler to Beatrice Philip (Mrs E. W. Godwin, Mrs J. McN. Whistler) (1857-1896), [14 March 1892], GUW #06613.

52: 'Mr Whistler's Works', Daily Graphic, 19 March 1892. 'Minor Exhibitions', Athenaeum, 26 March 1892; see also 'The Whistler Exhibition', The Irish Times, 24 March 1892; 'The Whistler Exhibition', Manchester Guardian, 25 March 1892; press cuttings in GUL Whistler PC 18/8, 28, 30, 32.

53: W. Sickert 1892 [more], at p. 545.

54: [13 April 1892], GUW #08340.

55: [5 May 1893], GUW #08229.

56: 9 May 1893, GUW #05777.

57: [July 1865] ?? (formerly dated [September 1865]), GUW #08037.