The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler

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La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine

La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine

Artist: James McNeill Whistler
Date: 1863-1865
Collection: Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
Accession Number: F1903.91a-b
Medium: oil
Support: canvas
Size: 199.9 x 116.0 cm (78 3/4 x 45 3/4")
Signature: 'Whistler 1864'
Inscription: see above
Frame: 1864 Whistler, carved decoration

Date

La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine is signed and dated 'Whistler 1864', but work on it was probably started in 1863 and ended in 1865.

La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art
La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art

1863-1864: The model, Christine Spartali, Countess Edmond de Cahen (1846–1884) posed for Whistler twice a week in the winter of 1863-1864, according to her sister Marie Spartali (Mrs W. J. Stillman) (1844-1927). 1

1864: In August Whistler and Ignace-Henri-Jean-Théodore Fantin-Latour (1836-1904) told Edwin Edwards (1823-1879) that they were 'working hard and are most anxious to get through these two pictures.' 2 Whistler's picture could have been Symphony in White, No. 2: The Little White Girl y052 or La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine. Whistler definitely worked on the latter, according to George du Maurier (1834-1896), in October 1864. 3

1864/1865: Whistler wrote to Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) regarding this painting or Symphony in White, No. 3 y061: 'Will you lend me one of your Chinese blue and white rugs - The same that you once before lent me - I just want it for my picture - I think it used to be on one of the stands in the China room.' 4

1865: Whistler told Fantin-Latour, 'la Japonaise me prend depuis le matin au Soir - Elle a été mise de coté jusquà present à cause de maladie du model - Ca va être bien je crois.' (Translation: 'the Japanese woman is taking me from morning to the evening - She was put aside until now because the model was unwell - I think she will be good.'). 5 Whistler worked on La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine in early March 1865, with the intention of sending it to the Salon. 6 It was first exhibited at the 83rd exhibition, Salon de 1865, Palais des Champs Elysées, Paris, 1865 (cat. no. 2220) as 'La Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine'.

The Peacock Room with La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art
The Peacock Room with La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art

1876: It is possible Whistler worked on it again in 1876, when it was seen in Whistler's studio, and before it was hung in Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room y178. 7

Images

La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art
La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art

Sketch for 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Worcester Art Museum, MA
Sketch for 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Worcester Art Museum, MA

La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, framed, Freer Gallery of Art
La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, framed, Freer Gallery of Art

La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, frame detail
La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, frame detail

Whistler's house in Lindsey row, photograph, ca 1878, Library of Congress
Whistler's house in Lindsey row, photograph, ca 1878, Library of Congress

The Peacock Room at 49 Prince's Gate, ca 1890
The Peacock Room at 49 Prince's Gate, ca 1890

Whistler Memorial Exhibition, Boston, 1904, photograph, GUL Whistler PH6/3
Whistler Memorial Exhibition, Boston, 1904, photograph, GUL Whistler PH6/3

The Peacock Room with La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art
The Peacock Room with La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art

The Peacock Room with 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Freer Gallery of
Art
The Peacock Room with 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Freer Gallery of Art

The Peacock Room with 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Freer Gallery of
Art
The Peacock Room with 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Freer Gallery of Art

Japanese lady decorating a fan, Cleveland Museum of Art
Japanese lady decorating a fan, Cleveland Museum of Art

Arrangement of paintings at the ISSPG, Library of Congress
Arrangement of paintings at the ISSPG, Library of Congress

Arrangement of paintings at the ISSPG, Library of Congress
Arrangement of paintings at the ISSPG, Library of Congress

Christina Spartali,  National Portrait Gallery, London,  NPG x18050
Christina Spartali, National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x18050

Marie Stillman (née Spartali),  National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x18048
Marie Stillman (née Spartali), National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x18048

H. Dixon & Son, 'The Peacock Room at 49 Prince's Gate', photograph, ca 1890, private collection
H. Dixon & Son, 'The Peacock Room at 49 Prince's Gate', photograph, ca 1890, private collection

Subject

Titles

Many variations on the title have been suggested:

'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine' is the preferred title, being based on the first published title of 1865.

In 1872, according to the Pennells, Whistler's titles were 'well-established':

'His use of titles to explain his pictorial intentions was now so well established that this same year (1872), when The White Girl and the Princesse were in the International Exhibition at South Kensington, they were catalogued respectively as Symphony in White, No. I., and Variations in Flesh-colour, Blue and Grey, later changed to Grey and Rose; and he supplied the explanation, printed in the Programme of Reception, that they were "the complete results of harmonies obtained by employing the infinite tones and variations of a limited number of colours." ' 19

Description

La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, 1864, Freer Gallery of Art, F1903.91
La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, 1864, Freer Gallery of Art, F1903.91

A full-length figure composition, in vertical format, featuring a woman with long dark hair dressed in Asian robes. Her dress is grey, decorated with silver, with a red belt; over it is a cream decorated robe, possibly a kimono. She holds a fan with a bamboo handle, decorated with irises, in her right hand (a second fan is on the wall at upper right). She stands in three-quarter view to left, leaning back to right, on a blue and white patterned carpet. Behind her is a folding Asian screen decorated with birds, flowers, and sprays of blossom. Behind her, to right (in front of the screen) an embroidered purple robe is draped over an unseen stool or chair, and to right of that is a tall blue and white porcelain vase.

Site

According to the Pennells, 'It was in the studio at No. 7 Lindsey Row ... a modest little second story, or English first floor, back room, that the Japanese pictures were painted.' 20

In Aileen Tsui's interesting analysis of the painting, she discusses the decor of the rooms in Lindsey Row:

'In the imaginations of Whistler and his artist friends in the 1860s, "China" and "Japan" could blur together as signifiers of a world of art both pure and strange, the highest beauty for the connoisseur and an eccentric amusement for others. A letter written by Henri Fantin-Latour when visiting Whistler in 1864 expresses the friends' shared sense of "Japan" and "China" melting together in their vision of a paradise of art unencumbered by troubling realities or actual distinctions.' 21

Fantin's letter reads:

'Ici, je suis presque dans le Paradis. Nous faisons une vie impossible, tous les trois dans l'atelier de Whistler. On se croirait à Nangasaki [sic] ou dans le Palais d'Eté, la Chine, le Japon, c'est splendide.'

Translation: 'Here, I am nearly in Paradise. We're fashioning an impossible life, all three of us in Whistler's studio. You would believe you were at Nagasaki or in the Summer Palace, China, Japan, it is splendid.' 22

Aileen Tsui comments further:

The fantasy of an East Asian realm that Fantin-Latour referred to as "la Chine, le Japon" served as a vividly imagined yet inaccessible place onto which Western anxieties and desires could be projected; these projections could also be attached to the tangible forms and graspable actuality of the East Asian objects – whether actually made in Asia or European imitations found both in artists' studios and in domestic spaces in Britain and France.' 23

Lindsey row, photograph ca 1878, LC PC
Lindsey row, photograph ca 1878, LC PC

The screen in the background was Whistler's, sold when he went bankrupt and bought, it is said, by Charles Augustus Howell (1840?-1890). 24

Sitter

Christina Spartali,  National Portrait Gallery, London,  NPG x18050
Christina Spartali, National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x18050

The model for this painting was Christine Spartali, Countess Edmond de Cahen (1846–1884), the daughter of Michael Spartali (1818-1914), a prosperous merchant, who was later the Greek Consul General in London.

Marie Stillman (née Spartali),  National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x18048
Marie Stillman (née Spartali), National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG x18048

Her sister, Marie Spartali (Mrs W. J. Stillman) (1844-1927), whose photograph is reproduced above, recorded information on the sittings.

However, when Christine Spartali was ill, her place may have been taken by a professional model, Emelie 'Millie' Eyre Jones (1850-1920).

The Pennells commented, 'The Princesse, in her trailing robes, is as little Japanese or Chinese as she is English.' 25 The same writers describe the sitters and sittings in some detail:

'The Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine is the portrait of Miss Christine Spartali, daughter of the Consul-General for Greece in London, whom Whistler met at Mr. Ionides house, and to whose dinners and parties he often went. There were two daughters, Christine (afterwards the Countess Edmond de Cahen) and Marie (Mrs. W. J. Stillman), both very beautiful, with a beauty as foreign to England as the colour of Japanese stuffs, and the conventions of Japanese artists. Whistler, no less than Rossetti, was struck by their beauty, and asked the younger sister, Christine, to sit to him. Mrs. Stillman, who always accompanied her for the sittings, has told us the story of the picture. …

The sittings went on until the sitter fell ill. … The two girls wanted their father to buy it, but Mr. Spartali did not like it. He objected to it as a portrait of his daughter.' 26

When a critic of the Glasgow Herald preferred this painting to a portrait of Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) (Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 2: Portrait of Thomas Carlyle y137) Whistler wrote:

'The picture takes its place simply with all the others and differs in no way from the portrait of Carlyle, excepting in as much as Carlyle himself dear old Gentleman differs from a Young lady in a Japanese dressing gown, in which it was not likely the Chelsea Sage should ever be seen!' 27

Comments

The painting was admired and sketched by Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (1872-1898) in 1892. 'Whistler has a large painting in his peacock room[,] I suppose this is what you mean by the Jap Girl painting a vase[.] The figure is very beautiful gorgeously painted Colour being principally old [gold?]', he told George Frederick Scotson-Clark (1872-1927), a poster designer. 28

Technique

Composition

Sketch for 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Worcester Art Museum
Sketch for 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Worcester Art Museum

Sketch for 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine' y049, shows the same pose but not the same model.

Japanese lady decorating a fan, Cleveland Museum of Art
Japanese lady decorating a fan, Cleveland Museum of Art

A later pastel by Whistler, Japanese lady decorating a fan m0460, appears to have been inspired by this composition. It is signed with a butterfly that dates from 1870/1872. The pose of the model echoes that in the painting, but the model (who is not Christine Spartali) faces right instead of left. The chair in the background is further to the right and the pot and draperies of the painting are omitted. The pastel relates to a later project for a decoration for the South Kensington Museums.

Technique

La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, 1864, Freer Gallery of Art
La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, 1864, Freer Gallery of Art

The canvas is a fairly fine weave.

The sitter's sister, Marie Spartali (Mrs W. J. Stillman) (1844-1927), told the Pennells:

'The first day, when they arrived in the studio, Whistler had his scheme prepared. The Japanese robe was ready, the rug and screen were in place, and he gave the pose at once. There are a number of small studies and sketches in oil and pastel that show how he had perfected the idea beforehand. They used to come to him twice a week, and this continued through the winter of 1863-64. At first the work went quickly, but soon it began to drag. Whistler often scraped down the figure just as they thought it all but finished, and day after day they returned to find that everything was to be done over again. Their parents got tired of it in the end, but not the two girls, who shared Whistler's enthusiasm. Mrs. Stillman remembers that Whistler partly closed the shutters so as to shut out the direct light ; that her sister stood at one end of the room, the canvas beside her; that Whistler would look at the picture from a distance, then suddenly dash at it, give one stroke, then dash away again. She remembers too that, as a rule, they arrived about half past ten or a quarter to eleven, that he painted steadily, forgetting everything else, that it was often long after two before they lunched. ...

The sittings went on until the sitter fell ill. Whistler was pitiless with his models. The head in the Princesse gave him most trouble. He kept Miss Spartali standing while he worked on it, never letting her rest ; she must keep the entire pose, and she would not admit her fatigue as long as she could help it. During her illness, a model stood for the gown, and when she was getting better, he came one day and made a pencil drawing of her head, though where it went to Mrs. Stillman never knew. There were a few more sittings after this, and at last the picture was finished.' 29

Aileen Tsui describes the variations in treatment seen in different areas of the canvas:

'Amid its effusion of colorful patterns, the painting represents the figure of Christina Spartali dressed in a kimono, her pale face and black hair set against the oddly vaporous gray paint in the upper section of the image ... In contrast to the mistiness of the gray paint in this upper band, the rest of the painting below presents to the viewer a variety of decorative surfaces rendered as flatly brushed patches, spots, dashes, and streaks of pigment. … Corporeal insubstantiality, spatial expansiveness, and color untrammeled by modeling or representational demands work together to produce painting as an overall surface of colored areas that register the painter's touch. Whistler's attention to decorative surfaces in La Princesse – such as rendering the pattern on the silvery kimono with as much precision and vividness as the features on the model's pale face – may be seen to present East Asian objects in their visual intensity as rivaling the expressiveness of the human figure.' 30

Conservation History

Freer Gallery of Art files record that it was cleaned and repaired in 1922, relined in 1931, resurfaced in 1942, had all three treatments in 1950, and was cleaned, retouched, and revarnished in 1970.

Frame

La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, framed, Freer Gallery of Art,
framed
La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, framed, Freer Gallery of Art, framed

La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, frame detail
La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, frame detail

1864: An 1864 Whistler frame, with carved decoration: raised flat outer edge with carved cross-hatch/ lacquer box pattern; inner frieze of carved whorls and Japanese mon roundels, stylized chrysanthemums at the corners and stylized tripods at the midpoints; raised inner edge of carved Greek keys and bevelled site edge. English made, possibly by Joseph Green in 1864. 31

It is one of the finest and most intricately made of Whistler’s frames, with carved decoration rather than the composition ornament typically seen on late 19th Century frames.

The Peacock Room at 49 Prince's Gate, ca 1890
The Peacock Room at 49 Prince's Gate, ca 1890

It is believed to have remained on the painting since 1864. When Whistler decorated Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room y178 between 1876 and 1878, the framed picture was itself framed by decorative shelving, specially designed to enclose it.

The Peacock Room with 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Freer Gallery of Art
The Peacock Room with 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Freer Gallery of Art

H. Dixon & Son, 'The Peacock Room at 49 Prince's Gate', photograph, ca 1890, private collection
H. Dixon & Son, 'The Peacock Room at 49 Prince's Gate', photograph, ca 1890, private collection

In 1892 the painting was removed from Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room y178 and sold at auction; in 1903 it was bought by Charles Lang Freer (1856-1919). In the following year he purchased The Peacock Room, which was re-erected, first in Detroit and then in Washington DC, and the framed painting was restored to its gilded setting.

History

Provenance

The sitter suggested to her father, Michael Spartali (1818–1914), that he should buy the picture, but he refused, 'He objected to it as a portrait of his daughter.' 32 Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) took it to his studio so that it might be seen by 'a collector' who was coming to look at his own work.

'Rossetti, always glad to be of service to a friend, sold the picture for Whistler, though this was no easy matter. Whistler agreed to take a hundred pounds, and Rossetti placed the canvas in his own studio, where it would be seen by a rich collector who was coming to look at his work. The collector came, saw the Princesse, liked it, wanted it. There was one objection : Whistler's signature in big letters across the canvas. If Whistler would change the signature he would take the picture. Rossetti, enchanted, hurried to tell Whistler. But Whistler was indignant. The request showed what manner of man such a patron was, one in whose possession he did not care to have any work of his, and that was the end of the bargain. However, Rossetti did sell the Princesse to another collector, who died shortly afterwards, when it was bought by Frederick Leyland, and so led to the decoration of the Peacock Room, one of Whistler's most splendid works.' 33

According to Whistler, 'My picture, the Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine, was bought at the instigation of Rossetti - if upon his advice - and I received for it one hundred pounds - or fifty - I forget which.' 34

It was shown in the London International Exhibition of 1872 and was bought by Frederick Richards Leyland (1832-1892); it was hanging in the Leylands' London house, 49 Princes Gate, by November 1872, as Whistler reported: 'The Princess is at Queens Gate and hanging in the "Velasquez Room" by the fire place opposite the door so that you can see her from the hall as you go in - She looks charming.' 35

The Peacock Room with La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art
The Peacock Room with La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art

The hanging of the painting developed into a full-blown decorative scheme for the entire room.

'A space was left over the mantel for the Princesse ... The walls were hung with Norwich leather. The shelves were divided by rigid perpendicular lines endlessly repeated, and the panelled ceiling, with its pendant lamps, was heavy and oppressive. Whistler objected that the red border of the rug, and the red flowers in the centre of each panel of the leather, which was painted, not embossed, killed the delicate tones of his picture. Leyland agreed with him. The red border was cut off the rug, and Whistler gilded, or painted, the flowers on the leather with yellow and gold. The result he pronounced horrible; the yellow paint and gilding "swore" at the yellow tone of the leather. Something else must be done, and again Leyland agreed. The something else developed into ... the Peacock Room.' 36

The Pennells, in discussion with Murray Marks (1840-1918), recorded a variation on this story:

'Leyland bought the Princesse before there was any idea of Whistler's decorating the room, and on the floor was a rug, with a red centre and red lines. Whistler objected to the reds when the picture was hung because he said they killed the rose in the painting, and Leyland allowed the centre and the lines to be taken out of the carpet. In the centre of each panel of leather, however, was a red flower, which also offended Whistler, and he painted or gilded all the flowers over with yellow. The result, Whistler pronounced horrible, as the yellow paint or gilding wouldn't work with the yellow of the leather.' 37

The Peacock Room at 49 Prince's Gate, ca 1890
The Peacock Room at 49 Prince's Gate, ca 1890

The Peacock Room with La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art
The Peacock Room with La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, Freer Gallery of Art

Whistler intended that the decorative scheme should harmonise with his painting and the result was a complete reworking of the entire room, which evolved in 1876-1877 into Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room y178 . 38

When Leyland died in 1892, Whistler took considerable interest in the sale of Leyland's collection, which was discussed in the Art Journal by Valentine Cameron Prinsep (1836-1904). 39 On 1 May Beatrice Philip (Mrs E. W. Godwin, Mrs J. McN. Whistler) (1857-1896), wrote to Alexander Reid (1854-1928):

'Mr Whistler is anxious to know if you know anything about the Leyland Sale, which, in an article in the number of the arts journal for this month he sees is to shortly take place at Christies.

The article you will see makes a slight mention of the Peacock Room, but nothing about the full length portrait of a woman in Japanese costume which hangs in it.

Now - Mr Whistler thinks you ought to try for that picture, for or at least fight it - for at the present juncture of affairs he does not think it ought to be let go for a small price - He says he is sure you could sell it in Glasgow - for it is the most brilliantly coloured of them all and is very beautiful.' 40

Beatrice Whistler was kept busy writing to one art dealer after another. She wrote in similar terms to Edward Guthrie Kennedy (1849-1932):

'Now - Mr Whistler wants to know if you are going to be in London for the Leyland Sale. In the Art Journal for this month is an article on the collection, written by Leyland's son in law, and although a slight mention is made of the Peacock room, no mention is made of the beautiful portrait of a lady in a Japanese dress which hangs in it - now - why don't you try for this picture Mr Whistler says - It is most brilliant in colour - and it would be sure to have a tremendous success in America - You might send it to Chicago.' 41

On 19 May 1892 Whistler himself wrote to D. C. Thomson of the Goupil Gallery: 'Leyland - What are you going to do about this sale? I certainly think that you ought to try and get the "Princesse des pays de la Porcelaine" - It is a beauty! - and ought to be easy to place - In any case, even if you do not buy - you surely ought to see that the picture is properly competed for.' 42 Thomson replied that they might try for it, and asked Whistler what he thought it was worth; he also checked that photographs were taken of the room and the painting. 43 On 28 May he told Whistler: 'the "Princesse" fetched 420 guineas, there was only another bidder besides ourselves from fifty guineas and ours was the last bid but one,' but, he added, if they had received confirmation of Whistler's citizenship they might have obtained an American buyer. 44 After it had been auctioned – and bought by Reid – Whistler complained to Thomson on 29 May: 'How could you let that splendid picture go for so ridiculous a sum and not either run up the price or secure it yourself?' 45

The Pennells commented:

'The Leyland sale, May 28, 1892, brought the Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine and smaller works into the auction room, and, though the Princesse fetched only four hundred and twenty guineas, this was four times as much as Whistler had received for it. What would he have said to the five thousand guineas Mr. Freer paid for it within a year of his death?' 46

Beatrice Whistler advised its new owner, Reid, to have it cleaned and to sell it to an American collector such as Potter Palmer (1826-1902) and Bertha Honoré Palmer (1849-1918), or a French one, such as Camille Groult (1837-1907):

'We are very glad you have the Princess. She has fallen into good hands, & now - Mr Whistler says you must ask £2000 guineas for her, and why dont you try the Potter Palmers, the rich Chicago people ...

Mr Whistler would like it to go to America or come here - There is Groult - the great collector here ...

Mr Whistler says - do let Richards do up the Princess and varnish her - ... it would be quite a different thing - if it got rid of the Leyland grime - I hope you will let me see her - before she goes right away.' 47

According to Harrison Smith Morris (1856-1948), manager of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, during their Sixty-third Annual Exhibition in 1893, Whistler's paintings La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine y050, Arrangement in Black and Brown: The Fur Jacket y181 and Arrangement in Black: La Dame au brodequin jaune - Portrait of Lady Archibald Campbell y242, belonging to a syndicate headed by Reid, were valued at $15,000 each, but the Academy was not interested. 48 Instead, Reid sold it to the great Glasgow collector, William Burrell, who was eventually persuaded to sell it to C. L. Freer, so that it could hang again in the 'Peacock Room'.

Exhibitions

La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, framed, Freer Gallery of Art
La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine, framed, Freer Gallery of Art

1865, Paris: As 'La Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine', this painting was first exhibited at the Salon in Paris in 1865, and hung on the line, according to Théodore Duret (1838-1927). 49 However, the Pennells wrote that it was ill-received by Paul Mantz (1821-1895), Jules Arsène Arnaud Claretie (1840-1913), and other critics:

'It seemed nothing but a study of costume to Paul Mantz, who, in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, decided to forget it and remember merely the mysterious seduction of The White Girl of two years before. Its eccentricity was only possible if taken in small doses like the homoeopathist's pills, according to Jules Claretie, who ... in L'Artiste, laughed at Manet's Olympia as a jest, a parody.' 50

Paul Mantz indeed decried the work as 'un étude de costume, et non la représentation d'une figure vivante' ('a costume study, and not the representation of a living figure'), 51 Similarly Claire de Charnacé (1830-1912), who considered the model neither beautiful nor a princess, thought it only a pretext for oriental colour and accessories ('n'est qu'un prétexte à études de vêtements, de tapis, de tentures et de paravents, aux couleurs de l'Orient.') 52

Louis Auvray (1810-1890) thought it no more than an attempt to enlarge the image on an Asian pot, 'sans modelé, sans expression, sans mouvement!' ('without modelling, expression or movement!') 53 Aileen Tsui notes that several writers, including Ernest Chesneau (1833-1890), decried the lifeless character of the figure: 'Il pouvait, ce me semble, animer sa princesse, lui donner le souffle et la vie; le pays de la porcelaine n'est pas le pays des Ombres' ('He could have, it seems to me, have animated his princess, given her breath and life; the land of porcelain is not the land of the Shades.') 54 Paul de Saint-Victor (1827-1881), went further, describing the figure as a mediocre head on a bamboo stalk in costume ('une tête quelconque, plantée sur un bambou habillé.') 55 Théophile Gautier, fils (1836-1904) found the figure both attractive and disturbing, a challenging confrontation between East and West. 56 Louis Gallet (1835-1898) also thought her a powerful and arresting figure: 'Cette tête de femme aux cheveux épais, aux lèvres rouges comme du sang, vous arrête au passage à la façon du sphinx antique' ('this woman's head with thick hair, with lips red like blood, stops you in your tracks in the manner of the antique sphinx.') 57

1872: London: It was shown in the International Exhibition as 'The Princess, Variations in Flesh Colour, Gray and Blue' or 'Variations in Flesh Colour, Grey and Blue – "The Princess'. The Times appreciated the colour scheme (which was emphasized by the title) but apparently did not admire Whistler's treatment of the model:

' "The Princess" is a Chinese lady with a fan ... described in the catalogue as "variations in flesh-colour, gray, and blue," and as such she is curious and clever. She also departs boldly from conventionalities of attitude, but also, it seems to us, from the laws of gravity, leaning too far backwards for any possibly equilibrium. Her face conveys nothing beyond its ugliness, and is surmounted by an extremely untidy head of coarse hair. We admire her as a clever and curious study in colour, but as nothing else.' 58

It was bought at that time by Frederick R. Leyland of Liverpool, who agreed to lend it to an exhibition in Brighton, which as Whistler explained to him, would be good for business (Whistler's business):

'I am told that it would be of really great importance that I should be present at the opening of the Brighton Exhibition on Wednesday - as they have given the place of honor to the Princess (loaned by F. R. Leyland ... ) and have generally done much to please - Morris thinks that it would be very unwise in me not to meet the committee on that day - and that it might bring about many things - in the way of "flesh pots," &c.' 59

1892: Years later, long after the artist had fallen out with his patron, Whistler mentioned to David Croal Thomson (1855-1930) the impossibility of borrowing the painting for his retrospective at Goupil's in 1892:

'There is only one picture of mine that I care for among in the Leyland collection - and that is the Portrait of Miss Spartali in Japanese dress - It hangs in the Peacock Room - and is not likely to be taken down - If it ever comes to the hammer - then we will talk about it.' 60

After Leyland's death, Whistler tried to get Thomson to approach Leyland's son-in-law, Valentine Cameron Prinsep (1836-1904), 'with your usual tact', about borrowing this painting for the exhibition at Goupil's. 61 This was impractical, but after the sale of the painting to Alexander Reid, Whistler immediately suggested it should be lent to the Society of Portrait Painters: 'I think it would be excellent in every way - It is sure to make a great hurrah! - for in fact it is scarcely known in London - was never exhibited there.' 62 This, of course, was not true! However, Reid agreed to lend, and Whistler was pleased, even if somewhat miffed at comments in the press:

'They have given her there I hear the place of honour, in the big room - and I suppose she will have no difficulty in holding her own! -

It is rather a bore in a way that those Glasgow papers should be so over wise and minute in all their knowledge - What they send me is, in spite of all ones experience in abuse, much more tiresome in its dilettante connoisseurship of appreciation -

Such nonsense about joyousness and period - The picture takes its place simply with all the others and differs in no way from the portrait of Carlyle excepting in as much as Carlyle himself dear old Gentleman differs from a Young lady in a Japanese dressing gown, in which it was not likely the Chelsea Sage should ever be seen!' 63

1893, Chicago: By October 1892 Whistler was campaigning to obtain a handsome group of paintings for exhibition in Chicago, and Halsey Cooley Ives (1847-1911) wrote 'the most charming and excellent letter' encouraging loans. 64 Edwin Austin Abbey (1852-1911) found Reid had an inflated view of the insurance value of the paintings ('Reid had insured his three for £3000 apiece') but in the end the matter was resolved to everyone's satisfaction. 65 Exhibiting in the American section at the Chicago Exposition, Whistler's paintings were awarded a gold medal, 'the first official honour from his native land' as the Pennells commented. 66 A selection of paintings of the 'best American art' from the Exposition were then sent on to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, including five Whistlers, which were hung prominently: the Director described them as 'the most conspicuous examples of American art exhibited.' 67 Alexander Reid was hopeful that 'after all their promises surely one of the pictures will be sold.' 68 And one was sold, but not this one, and so Whistler thought 'it would be well worth while' to exhibit it in Germany:

'I am assured that there are strong intentions of making Berlin important as art centre - and great chances of selling your pictures there -

They would have best possible places in the American Section - and meet with most distinguished treatment.' 69

But, in the end, Whistler did not exhibit anything in Berlin until 1900.

1896-1901: By 1896 the painting was owned by the Glasgow shipping magnate, William Burrell (1861-1958), and he lent it to the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts in 1896 and to a major international exhibition in Glasgow in 1901. The painting had also appeared on a wish list for the first exhibition of the Society of Austrian Artists in Vienna in 1898. 70 Instead it went to the first exhibition of Whistler's own International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers in London.

Arrangement of paintings at the ISSPG, Library of Congress
Arrangement of paintings at the ISSPG, Library of Congress

Whistler insisted on the precise hanging of his group: 'So if I send my portrait you will put it between the Rosa Corder and the Princess - leaving nice margin - and keeping all on line, more than in sketch', and he added a sketch, Arrangement of paintings at the ISSPG m1539. 71

Arrangement of paintings at the ISSPG, Library of Congress
Arrangement of paintings at the ISSPG, Library of Congress

Then, because he was adding etchings by his late wife, Beatrice Philip (Mrs E. W. Godwin, Mrs J. McN. Whistler) (1857-1896), Whistler sent more instructions to Albert Ludovici, Jr (1852-1932) and another sketch, Arrangement of paintings at the ISSPG m1540:

'1. Rose Corder. 2. Princess. 3. Portrait. 4. Piano. 5. Oval. 6. Thames in ice. 7. Philosopher. 8. Nocturne Valparaiso. 9. Petite Souris (girls head with feather boa)[.] 10. "Etchings by Mrs McNeill Whistler".

Or 2 10 7. 8 9.

Yes this / * last way I prefer - and it gives you no trouble - ... Hang all my pictures on the line - excepting the Holloway (Philosopher) just a tiny bit up to make the line pretty - and perhaps the Petite Souris - also slightly - a matter for your eye - And be sure to see to the proper tilting over - so that can be well seen - ... Hang nothing under any of the pictures.' 72

This was barely hung before there was a request from Filippo Grimani (1850-1921), 'Au nom de la Ville de Venise - que vous aimez et qui vous admire', for 'une collection de vos oeuvres, celle, par exemple, qui donnait un attrait si puissant à l'Exposition de Knightsbridge' for the 'Exposition internationale des Beaux-Arts' of 1899. 73 Whistler did mention to Burrell that he was about to get requests for exhibitions in both Russia and Venice, 'for Venice I rely upon you' he wrote, and so Burrell agreed to lend it to Venice but not to St Petersburg. 74

Burrell lent the painting to the International Exhibition in Glasgow in 1901, where a visitor (possibly an American) jotted in his catalogue: 'Splendid quality of Color but affected & repulsive in character, accorded the place of Honor'. 75

1904-1905:

Whistler Memorial Exhibition, Boston, 1904, GUL Whistler PH6/3
Whistler Memorial Exhibition, Boston, 1904, GUL Whistler PH6/3

After Whistler's death, it was exhibited in pride of place at the end of one of the galleries in the Boston Whistler Memorial Exhibition in 1904, as well as in Paris in the following year.

The Peacock Room with 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Freer Gallery of
Art
The Peacock Room with 'La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine', Freer Gallery of Art

The wanderings of the Princesse have now ceased: by the terms of C. L. Freer's bequest to the Freer Gallery of Art the painting cannot be lent.

Bibliography

Catalogues Raisonnés

Authored by Whistler

Catalogues 1855-1905

EXHIBITIONS:

SALE:

Newspapers 1855-1905

Journals 1855-1905

Monographs

Books on Whistler

BOOKS 1901-1905:

BOOKS 1906-PRESENT:

Books, General

Catalogues 1906-Present

COLLECTION:

EXHIBITION:

SALES:

Journals 1906-Present

Websites

Unpublished

Other


Notes:

1: Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, pp. 122-25.

2: Whistler to Edwin Edwards, [9 August 1864], GUW #09083.

3: Du Maurier 1951 [more], p. 244.

4: [1864/1865], GUW #09393.

5: [February/March 1865], GUW #08040.

6: Fantin-Latour to Edwin Edwards, 2 March 1865, copy in Bibliothèque Municipale, Grenoble.

7: 'American Artists in London, What they have done for Philadelphia', New York Herald, New York, 10 April 1876, p. 5; press cutting in GUL Whistler PC 2, p. 2. See also Whistler's letter to F. R. Leyland, [April 1876], GW #02568.

8: 83rd exhibition, Salon de 1865, Palais des Champs Elysées, Paris, 1865 (cat. no. 2220).

9: London International Exhibition of 1872, the Second of a Series Held under the Direction of Her Majesty’s Commissioners for the Exhibition of 1851, London, [in the building for the Exhibition of 1862], 1872 (cat. no. 261).

10: Whistler to F. R. Leyland, [2/9 November 1872], GUW #08794.

11: Second Annual Exhibition of Modern Pictures in Oil and Water Colour, Royal Pavilion Gallery, Brighton, 1875 (cat. no. 156).

12: Whistler to D. C. Thomson, 5 March [1892], GUW #08357.

13: 2nd exhibition, Society of Portrait Painters, London, 1892 (cat. no. 113).

14: World's Columbian Exposition, Department of Fine Arts, Chicago, 1893 (cat. no. 1100) as 'The Princess of the Land of Porcelain'.

15: Mansfield to Whistler, 15 May 1893, GUW #04002.

16: Exhibition of International Art, International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, Knightsbridge, London, 1898 (cat. no. 180).

17: Œuvres de James McNeill Whistler, Palais de l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1905 (cat. no. 9).

18: YMSM 1980 [more] (cat. no. 50).

19: Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, p. 157.

20: Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, p. 121.

21: Tsui, Aileen, 'Whistler's La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine: Painting Re-Oriented', Nineteenth Century Art Worldwide, Vol. 9, No. 2, Autumn 2010, online.

22: Fantin-Latour to his parents, 12 July 1864, quoted in Spencer, Robin, 'Whistler and Japan: Work in Progress' in Japonisme in Art: An International Symposium, ed. Yamada Chisaburo, Tokyo, 1980, p. 60.

23: Tsui 2010, online, op. cit..

24: Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, p. 259.

25: Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, p. 122.

26: Ibid., vol. 1, pp. 122-23.

27: Whistler to A. Reid, [26 June 1892], GUW #03206.

28: [1/16 June 1892], GUW #07609.

29: Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, pp. 123-24.

30: Tsui 2010 [more], online.

31: Dr Sarah L. Parkerson Day, Report on frames, 2017, GUL WPP; see also Parkerson 2007 [more].

32: Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, p. 124.

33: Ibid., vol. 1, pp. 124-25.

34: Draft of letter to an editor, [1/7 June 1892], GUW #07450.

35: Whistler to F. R. Leyland, [2/9 November 1872], GUW #08794.

36: Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, pp. 203-04.

37: Pennell 1921C [more], p. 109.

38: Merrill 1998 [more], pp. 14-15, 210-11.

39: Prinsep, Val, 'The Private Art Collections of London. The Late Mr Frederick Leyland's [Collection] in Prince's Gate. First Paper - Rossetti and his Friend,' The Art Journal, new series, no. 647, May 1892, pp. 129-34.

40: GUW #11635.

41: 1 May 1892, GUW #09677.

42: GUW #08203.

43: 20 and 25 May 1892, GUW #05739 and #05741.

44: GUW #05742.

45: GUW #08201. Thomson replied he was only authorised to go to £400.0.0, 31 May 1892, GUW #05743.

46: Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, p. 127.

47: [30 May 1892], GUW #03207. Camille Groult (1837-1907).

48: Pennell 1921C [more], p. 4.

49: Duret 1881, Whistler [more], p. 365.

50: Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, p. 130. See Claretie, Jules, 'Deux Heures au Salon,' L'Artiste, 15 May 1865, pp. 224-29.

51: Mantz, Paul, 'Salon de 1865 Suite', Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1 July 1865, p. 7. This and the following 1865 reviews are quoted in Goebel 1988 [more], p. 723-26, and analysed in Tsui, Aileen, 'Whistler's La Princesse du pays de la porcelaine: Painting Re-Oriented', Nineteenth Century Art Worldwide, Vol. 9, Autumn 2010, online.

52: 'C. de Sault' (Mme de Charnacé), 'Salon de 1865,' Le Temps, Paris, 6 June 1865.

53: Auvray, Louis, Le Salon de 1865, Paris: A. Levy Fils, 1865.

54: Chesneau, Ernest, 'Beaux Arts: Salon de 1865: III: Les excentriques,' Le Constitutionnel, 16 May 1865, p. 2. Tsui 2010, op. cit.

55: Saint-Victor, Paul de, 'Salon de 1865: Quatrième Article (1),' La Presse, 28 May 1865, p. 3.

56: Gautier, Théophile, fils, 'Salon de 1865 1er article,' Le Monde Illustré, Paris, 6 May 1865, p. 283.

57: Gallet, Louis, Le Salon de 1865, Peinture, Sculpture, Paris: Le Bailly, 1865, p. 28.

58: 'The International Exhibition', The Times, London, 14 May 1872, p. 6.

59: 4 September [1875], GUW #11866.

60: Whistler to D. C Thomson, 14 February 1892, GUW #08216.

61: 9 March 1892, GUW #08357.

62: [15 June 1892], GUW #03203.

63: Whistler to A. Reid, [26 June 1892], GUW #03206.

64: Whistler to E. G. Kennedy, [21 October/November 1892], GUW #09699.

65: [10/25 January 1893], GUW #00001.

66: Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 2, p. 132.

67: Yount, Sylvia, 'Whistler and Philadelphia', in Exhibition catalogue Atlanta, After Whistler, 2003 [more], pp. 50-63, at pp. 55-56; fig. 45, p. 56, shows the Whistler paintings in the exhibition (photograph in the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts Archives, Philadelphia).

68: Reid to Whistler, 28 November 1893, GUW #05157.

69: Whistler to Reid, 31 March [1895], GUW #09379.

70: Whistler to Society of Austrian Artists, 12 February 1898, GUW #12579.

71: Whistler to A. Ludovici, [26/30 April 1898], GUW #08075.

72: [April/May 1898], GUW #10694.

73: Translated: 'In the name of the City of Venice - which you love and which admires you', requests 'a collection of your works, the one, for example, which was so great an attraction at the Exhibition in Knightsbridge.' Grimani to Whistler, 17 December 1898, GUW #05944.

74: 26 December 1898, GUW #08974; Burrell to Whistler, 10 February 1899, GUW #00457.

75: International Exhibition, Glasgow Art Galleries, Glasgow, 1901 (cat. no. 505), annotated catalogue in The Menschel Library (b1001715_072), Metropolitan Museum of Art website at https://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org.