The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler

YMSM 063
The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio)

The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio)

Artist: James McNeill Whistler
Date: 1865/1872, 1895
Collection: Art Institute of Chicago
Accession Number: Friends of American Art Collection, 1912.141
Medium: oil
Support: paper mounted on wood panel
Size: 62.9 x 46.4 cm (24 3/4 x 18 1/4")
Signature: butterfly
Inscription: none
Frame: Whistler-style, ca 1911

Date

The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio) was probably started in London in August 1865, continued in the early 1870s, and touched up in 1895.

The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), Art Institute of Chicago
The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), Art Institute of Chicago

1865: Both The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio) and The Artist's Studio y062 relate to a large picture Whistler intended to submit to the Salon in 1866. He described the proposed figure composition to Ignace-Henri-Jean-Théodore Fantin-Latour (1836-1904) on 16 August 1865:

'J'ai pour le salon une réunion de nous autres à mon tour - j'en ai fait une esquisse qui est bigrement bien - ca représente l'intérieur de mon atelier - porcelaine et tout! Il y a toi et Moore, la fille blanche assise sur un canapé et la Japonaise qui se promène! enfin un apothéose de tout ce qui peut scandaliser les Académiciens, les couleurs choisies sont charmantes. moi en gris clair - la robe blanche de Jo - la robe couleur de chair de la Japonaise (vue de dos) toi et Moore en noir - le fond de l'atelier gris - c'est en hauteur, et aura à peu près dix pieds de haut, sur six ou sept de large.' 1

Translation: 'In my turn I have a reunion of all of us for the Salon - I have done a sketch of it which is really good - it shows the interior of my studio - porcelain and all. You are there, and Moore, the white girl sitting on the couch, and the Japanese girl walking about! An apotheosis therefore of everything to outrage the Academicians, the colours I have chosen are charming - Me in light grey - Jo's white dress - the flesh-coloured dress of the Japanese girl (seen from behind) you and Moore in black - the studio background grey - It's upright, and will be about ten feet high, and six or seven wide.'

Both The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio) and The Artist's Studio differ from this description, in that neither Albert Joseph Moore (1841-1893) nor Fantin-Latour are now visible. The phrase 'à mon tour' refers to Fantin-Latour's group portraits, Hommage à Delacroix (Salon 1864; Musée d'Orsay, Paris) and Hommage à la Verité: Le Toast, in both of which Whistler's portrait appeared. Le Toast was shown at the Salon in 1865, then cut into fragments by the artist. Some of the portrait heads survive, the self-portrait and the portrait of Whistler being in the Freer Gallery of Art. There is, however, no record of Whistler going on to paint the large picture mentioned in his letter to Fantin-Latour.

1868: Mary Glenn Perine (1822-1896) visited Whistler's mother at 2 Lindsey Row and described seeing a model, the wife of an 'Ethiopian minstrel', posing for Whistler in Chinese drapery. 2 The model was Emelie 'Millie' Eyre Jones (1850-1920), who was married to an actor or 'black and white minstrel'. She may have been posing for The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio).

1871/1874: Whistler may have continued to work on Whistler in his Studio for several years. The butterfly signature was added in the early 1870s, which implies either that he was still working on it, or that he signed it for exhibition, sale, or in order to sell or give it to his brother, William McNeill Whistler (1836-1900).

1895: Over thirty years later, Whistler was asked to complete one of the heads, and, as he told his brother, 'touched up the little head in the studio picture' in Paris in July 1895. 3

Images

The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), Art Institute of Chicago
The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), Art Institute of Chicago

The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), photograph, 1980?
The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), photograph, 1980?

The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), with frame, Art Institute of Chicago
The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), with frame, Art Institute of Chicago

The Artist's Studio, Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, Dublin
The Artist's Studio, Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, Dublin

D. Velázquez, Las Meninas, detail, photograph, GUL Whistler PH3/8
D. Velázquez, Las Meninas, detail, photograph, GUL Whistler PH3/8

Dining-room in Whistler's first house in Lindsey Row, photograph, Pennell 1921, f.p. 153
Dining-room in Whistler's first house in Lindsey Row, photograph, Pennell 1921, f.p. 153

Subject

Titles

Several possible titles have been suggested:

The title 'Whistler in his Studio' was suggested in 1905 and 1980 to distinguish this painting from The Artist's Studio y062. However, although there is some doubt about the original title, an alternative title is now suggested, namely 'The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio)'.

Description

The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), Art Institute of Chicago
The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), Art Institute of Chicago

It was described by the artist:

' "In the Studio" - Three figures; portrait of Whistler standing holding brush in left hand, the female figure standing with back to spectator, in flesh coloured gown - like in "the Balcony", one female figure sitting on a sofa in corner of room.' 13

It shows a corner of Whistler's studio, in vertical format. The artist stands at right, looking at the viewer, holding a brush and palette and in the act of painting, though the easel and picture are out of the picture to right. Whistler wears a pale grey jacket, white shirt, short black cravat, darker grey trousers. At left is a white sofa with a brown-haired young woman in a white dress seated looking up at another woman. This woman has light brown hair, and is dressed in a pale pink-flesh-coloured robe that trails behind her; she holds a white fan up in front of her face, and stands turning away from the viewer.

Behind the sofa at left are four shelves of blue and white Chinese porcelain. High on the wall at upper left, just to right of the shelves, are three narrow picture frames or hanging scrolls. Behind Whistler is a large mirror, slightly tilted forward at the top and streakily reflecting the room; to its right, just to right of Whistler's head, is a small framed picture, possibly an etching or photograph. The walls are grey, the floor a light brown.

Site

According to Whistler's biographers, the Pennells, it was painted 'in the first house in Lindsey Row' (7 Lindsey Row). 14

Dining-room in Whistler's first house in Lindsey Row, photograph, Pennell 1921, f.p. 153
Dining-room in Whistler's first house in Lindsey Row, photograph, Pennell 1921, f.p. 153

The photograph reproduced above shows porcelain arranged on the wall in Lindsey Row. 15

Sitter

The woman on the sofa was Joanna Hiffernan (b. ca 1843-d.1886).

The other was described by Whistler as the 'Japonaise'. 16 This model may have been Emelie 'Millie' Eyre Jones (1850-1920), who was certainly posing in the following year. Sittings for Symphony in White, No. 3 y061 probably overlapped with those for The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), and both paintings include the studio sofa. The Pennells wrote, 'The two women most likely are the two models for Symphony in White, No. III., who have stopped posing.' 17 Thus the models are posing after posing as if not posing ...

Mary Glenn Perine (1822-1896) visited Whistler's mother Anna Matilda Whistler (1804-1881) at 2 Lindsay Row and described seeing a model, the wife of an 'Ethiopian minstrel', posing for Whistler in Chinese drapery. 18 This was possibly for The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio). Emilie Jones was married to the actor Frederick Henry Robson who was a 'black and white minstrel' though definitely not Ethiopian.

Originally the composition was intended to include three artists, James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903), Ignace-Henri-Jean-Théodore Fantin-Latour (1836-1904), and Albert Joseph Moore (1841-1893). A man was originally painted leaning on the sofa, but whether that was Fantin-Latour or Moore is impossible to say.

Comments

D. Velázquez, Las Meninas, detail, photograph, GUL Whistler PH3/8
D. Velázquez, Las Meninas, detail, photograph, GUL Whistler PH3/8

Although he never saw the original, Whistler owned a photograph of a detail from Las Meninas by Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velázquez (1599-1660), which may have had a profound influence on the studio compositions. 19

MacDonald discussed the two compositions:

'Whistler’s oil group portrait is often cited as homage to Diego Velázquez’s Las Meninas (1656 and 1657, Prado, Madrid). His pose, with palette and brush in hand, the flash of white from his shirt echoing the slash of white on Velázquez’s sleeve, the studio setting and mirror, the colour and interaction of the models, reinforce this assumption. However, it also referenced Chinese blue and white porcelain and Japanese dress placing the artist in an Aesthetic setting. The group represented a meeting of East and West, of the New World and the Old. It showed men in contemporary dress, the artist at work, and women relaxing, one in a European summer dress of muslin and the other dressed-up in a Japanese kimono, in a harmonious composition that emphasized the separation of the sexes.

... Such art historical references helped critics to place Whistler, the alien American, within the European artistic tradition. Whistler’s position vis-à-vis his famous predecessors – Velásquez and Rembrandt – could be read as admiring – that of the ‘follower’ – or ambitious – an attempt to compete, to show his competence or superiority. It was a dangerous practise, but it worked quite well for Whistler. His paintings were frequently compared to Velásquez, his etchings to Rembrandt.' 20

Technique

Composition

On 16 August 1865 Whistler said that he had painted a 'sketch' which included himself, Fantin-Latour, Albert Moore, and two women: 'Il y a toi et Moore, la fille blanche assise sur un canapé et la Japonaise qui se promène!' 21 It is immediately obvious that The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), one of two similar sketches of a figure composition, includes the artist and two women but not the other two men.

The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), Art Institute of Chicago
The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), Art Institute of Chicago

However, an earlier configuration was revealed by recent visual and technical analysis at the Art Institute of Chicago, and described by Kimberley Muir. Infrared Reflectogram disclosed the existence of a seated male figure to left of centre, wearing a black cap or low, round brimmed hat and a dark jacket; he leans on his elbow on the end of the sofa, looking towards the seated figure of Hiffernan at left. 22 This figure was replaced and mainly concealed by the standing figure of 'la Japonaise'. There is no sign of another male figure or an alternative position for the standing woman: if they were scraped out, it must have been done very thoroughly.

The Artist's Studio, Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, Dublin
The Artist's Studio, Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, Dublin

The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio) is one of two paintings (the other is The Artist's Studio y062) that relate to a large picture Whistler intended to submit to the Salon in 1866. He described it in his letter to Fantin-Latour of 16 August 1865:

'J'ai pour le salon une réunion de nous autres à mon tour - j'en ai fait une esquisse qui est bigrement bien - ca représente l'intérieur de mon atelier - porcelaine et tout! Il y a toi et Moore, la fille blanche assise sur un canapé et la Japonaise qui se promène! ... les couleurs choisies sont charmantes. moi en gris clair - la robe blanche de Jo - la robe couleur de chair de la Japonaise (vue de dos) toi et Moore en noir - le fond de l'atelier gris - c'est en hauteur, et aura à peu près dix pieds de haut, sur six ou sept de large.' 23

According to Sir Hugh Percy Lane (1875-1915) Whistler painted it from 'a sketch' (The Artist's Studio y062), which would imply that The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio) was the second and more finished painting. 24 However, after certain alterations to the original composition had been painted over, it was still unfinished. Indeed, a reproduction of the painting published in the Pall Mall Budget on 2 February 1893 shows the head of the woman on the sofa before it was completed. 25 The art dealer Edward Guthrie Kennedy (1849-1932) noted on 12 July 1895 that Whistler was 'to put a head on the one on the sofa.' 26 Therefore, as Whistler told his brother, he 'touched up the little head in the studio picture' in Paris in July 1895. 27 Kennedy had wanted 'the face & hands of the woman finished, and the tonality not disturbed' but Whistler wrote that, 'artistically, the quality of the picture is not to be enhanced.' 28

Technique

In their biography of Whistler, the Pennells comment:

'He holds the small palette he sometimes used with raised edges to keep the liquid colour from running off, he wears the long-sleeved white waistcoat in which he worked, and he painted from the reflection in the mirror, for his brush is in his left hand.' 29

It was thinly painted in muted colours. Details, including the folds of the women's dresses, and Whistler's shirt, and the faces, were added in clearly visible separate strokes of creamy textured paint, as were the highlights on the blue and white porcelain and the gold picture frames. Kimberley Muir analysed the medium and materials involved:

'Whistler painted the work on board ... prepared with a red ground layer that contains a mixture of iron-oxide red and lead white. ... Over this, Whistler applied a relatively thick, overall pale-gray paint layer using long, vertical brushstrokes … followed, in some places, by a slightly darker bluish-gray layer. These broadly applied gray layers remain exposed to varying degrees ... providing much of the gray tonality in the final composition ... The gray layers were dry when Whistler applied very thin layers of medium-rich, translucent brown paint over the entire surface. The brown paint appears to have been added and wiped back in a process that allowed more or less of the light-gray paint to show through in different areas.' 30

Whistler's paints included lead white, red, yellow and brown iron oxide or earth pigments, vermilion, cobalt blue, ultramarine blue, and bone black, and added medium to his paint to achieve the desired fluidity. Muir adds interesting observations on the technique involved:

'Whistler built up the composition using both thin, fluid paint applications and more bodied paint brushed on in discrete and deliberate strokes with ridges of low impasto ... In general, the figures were quickly painted in single wet-in-wet sessions; however, ... the dress of the seated woman was clearly painted after the brushstrokes of the sofa were dry. The standing woman was added later … Whistler made a late change to the head of the seated woman. … The head is more densely painted than those of the other figures with paint that is relatively matte and fluid, apparently thinned with solvent. It overlaps the neck of the dress.' 31

Conservation History

On 4 May 1893 Whistler wrote to the picture restorer Stephen Richards (1844-1900),

'you will receive three other pictures - No. 1. A sketch of mine on Millboard called known as the Studio ... You will clean very delicately - getting rid of all the dirt, and then varnish beautifully - But be very carefull! [sic] … I leave all this in your hands and have great faith in your care & discretion as well as your skill.' 32

On the 27 May Francis Gerard Prange (b. ca 1843) reported, '"The Studio" has been in Richard's hands for a week. It is certainly improved and I have put about this fact of its being for sale in the right quarters.' 33

Muir explains that there is an overall natural-resin varnish layer, and yellowed natural-resin residues in the recesses of the paint texture from an earlier cleaning plus an additional layer of varnish applied at more recent date, and adds: 'The surface has an even, satiny sheen'. Despite minor paint loss, damage, and retouchings, the painting is in good condition overall. 34

Frame

The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), with frame, Art Institute of Chicago
The Artist in his Studio (Whistler in his Studio), with frame, Art Institute of Chicago

Whistler-style frame dating from ca 1911. 35

History

Provenance

Whistler may have sold or given the painting to his brother, Dr William Whistler, possibly on the occasion of his marriage to Helen ('Nellie') Euphrosyne Whistler (1849-1917) in 1877, or at the time of Whistler's bankruptcy in 1879. It is recorded in Dr Whistler's possession by 1887. 36

Whistler's correspondence regarding this painting is, to say the least, extensive! It starts in 1893, when the painting was put on sale on behalf of Dr Whistler by David Croal Thomson (1855-1930), who told Whistler,

'We are making a special show of the Studio & have written to all the papers about it. We have one buyer for the picture nibbling at it, but we are not very sure of him. We have received your telegram & have told the Pall Mall who will photograph it tomorrow.' 37

Whistler thereupon reported to his sister-in-law, Helen ('Nellie') Euphrosyne Whistler (1849-1917):

'Have you seen the little picture since Thomson has had it in Bond Street? He has made quite an Exhibition of it - and as to the papers! I don't think I ever had such a success!

Have you not seen them? - no end of cuttings have come over to us - and now they are going to reproduce the painting in the Pall Mall Budget - so you must be on the look out for it -

Thomson writes me that there is someone nibbling already - but he is not sure of him - The price I told him to ask was £500 - out of which he was to have ten per cent -

I shall take it away from him soon, if he does not manage the business, and send it from Paris (where I should have it backed on Mahogany panel) to New York where it is sure to sell - especially after all the hurrah that it has made in London -

It certainly has made a great stir in the place this time.' 38

On 4 February Thomson reported no progress in selling it: 'We have had a lot of people to see the "Atelier" picture which is in the P. M. Budget this week, but money seems so scarce that we cannot get anyone to buy it or almost anything else.' 39 As a result Whistler asked Thomson to return it, and wrote apologetically from Paris to his sister-in-law:

'As to the little "Studio" I am humiliated - and disgusted to think that it has not gone yet! - It is here now - and stands some chance of being bought by Americans who are sure to come over very soon - Besides I shall still try in Paris - you see people are beginning to come in on Sunday afternoons.' 40

He suggested to his brother a reduction in price. 41 Nearly a year later, Whistler again tried to sell 'the little picture again of myself in studio', telling his sister-in-law to get 'Little Mr Thomson' to send it to Paris, where Whistler hoped to sell it through Théodore Duret (1838-1927). 42 He reassured his brother, who was clearly somewhat desperate for money, 'It will be all right my dear Willie I hope - for Duret is seeing to the sale of the little picture ... So hold on! - for these things take of course a little time - especially when we want them.' 43 However, no sale materialised. Whistler also wrote to Alexander Reid (1854-1928), recommending the picture as a good investment:

'You wanted me always to tell you of the possible acquiring of any of the old works - Now I have the little picture that used to be at my brother's - myself in the studio - with a girl in white seated on sofa and another girl in flesh coloured Japanese dress, standing -

You know the picture - Will you give £250 net. for it - I cannot say fairer -

You know the painting - a beauty of its kind - and I should think you would do excellent business with it.' 44

It appears that Reid did not take up the offer, though it was a bargain. Next Whistler tried the American market, at a much higher price. He wrote to Edward Guthrie Kennedy (1849-1932) early in July 1895:

'I am going to get at the little "Studio" picture, and put in the head for you at once - Do you think then that you could get the £400 before you go back? This if without wearying you, would come well - You know it is not for me this time -

However I must put in the little head first!' 45

Kennedy agreed, in principle, noting, ' "The Studio" is the painting of himself painting, one girl behind him in rose colored robe, and another, unfinished, on the sofa. He is to put a head on the one on the sofa & I am to buy it for 400/-/- It is fine but dear, as things go now.' 46 He probably did not realise that Whistler was still seeing if he could sell it in Paris! Whistler told his sister-in-law, 'The little picture may have to go to America first - for that is where Kennedy expects it - but I am keeping it a bit as I have had a nibble here - However that we cannot be sure of.' 47 Whistler touched up the picture as requested by Kennedy, but still postponed sending it, telling his brother, 'I have touched up the little head in the Studio picture - and some one is coming to see it tomorrow.' 48 Eventually Whistler told Kennedy it was ready, and the art dealer replied:

'When you send the doctor's picture send by steamer direct. Give the value as £96/-/- otherwise we shall have to pay four times the freight. Do not insure, as we do the insurance here which has nothing to do with Consular invoice or anything else, as we have a floating policy. It is too long to explain. I think I may dispose of it as it is at £300/-/- I was to have given £400/-/- with alterations, that is completed and so on. By completed, I mean with the face & hands of the woman finished, and the tonality not disturbed.

I daresay I am too guileless for this wicked, wicked world, but what can I do?' 49

He must have expected agreement, instead the not-at-all guileless artist complained,

'Now my dear O K! you know that won't do at all - The "Studio" picture doesn't go under 400 gs - down -

Touched or untouched matters not - In point of fact the man who would propose to take it without further work upon, is the wise one - for, Artistically, the quality of the picture is not to be enhanced - But to propose to make a cool hundred besides is stupendous!' 50

Having just sold another early picture, Blue and Silver: The Devonshire Cottages y266, for his brother, Whistler thought he might be able to obtain a better price: 'the "Studio" picture has got to come on! and now I think we can bide our time and get a niceish little sum.' 51 So, a year later, in 1896, Kennedy was still 'waiting' for 'the portrait painting & the two girls - one unfinished,' but by this time Whistler's wife Beatrice was seriously ill with cancer, as Kennedy knew, and in the same letter he offered to send Whistler money 'if you are pushed to the wall.' 52 By that winter, Dr Whistler was also ill, and greatly in need of the money. The painting was in Paris, so Whistler had it sent to D. C. Thomson of Goupil's in London, who agreed to buy it. Whistler was able to send his brother a cheque, assuring him, 'they have paid down half - Thomson asking me to let them pay the other half at beginning of year.' 53 It appears that Dr Whistler wanted to share the money received with the artist, who accordingly wrote, on 2 January 1897,

'The Goupils are to pay the other half of the price agreed upon -

I had originally asked £300 - and this it was fully understood was for you - That we had quite agreed upon you & I. - Therefore that sum you really must make no difficulty about -

If it be more pleasing that I should take whatever is over and above £300, I will go heartily with you so far - and that will be all right - So let us say no more about it -

I will divide the next incoming Goupil cheque for £200 - Sending you cheque for £100 - which you must not return - and every thing will be perfect.' 54

This was agreed and, by October, the picture had been sold to Douglas Freshfield, the explorer. 55 The rest of the provenance is reasonably straightforward, and the long saga ended with the acquisition of the painting by the Art Institute of Chicago in 1912.

Exhibitions

It was included in the exhibition organised by Walter Richard Sickert (1860-1942) at the College for Men and Women, in London in 1889. 'The Artist in his Studio', said the Manchester Examiner, 'should also be noticed', which was not exactly a rave review. 56

Some years later, when Whistler was trying to sell it for Dr William Whistler, he decided, as a marketing ploy, to submit it the Society of Portrait Painters in London in 1893. 'I am sending the little picture of "the Studio" as a sketch "portrait" ', he told D. C. Thomson of the Goupil Gallery. 57 In fact it was shown at the SPP as 'An Interior', and was praised in The Spectator:

'Whistler sends a picture of a studio interior. He himself is represented painting; two women's figures are indicated in the corner; above are shelves of blue china and a mirror. The whole is a lovely piece of suggestion and colour.' 58

Then in 1898 it was exhibited in a mixed show at the Goupil Gallery in London as 'In the Studio'. The Daily Telegraph commented on 10 March that it was an early painting 'taken up and completed in the newer and broader style', while The Times on 21 March 1898 listed it without comment.

Bibliography

Catalogues Raisonnés

Authored by Whistler

Catalogues 1855-1905

Newspapers 1855-1905

Journals 1855-1905

Monographs

Books on Whistler

Books, General

Catalogues 1906-Present

Journals 1906-Present

Websites

Unpublished

Other


Notes:

1: Whistler to Fantin-Latour, 16 August [1865], GUW #11477.

2: [20 July 1868], Diary, Maryland Historical Society Library, Manuscripts Division, Baltimore, MD.

3: Whistler to W. McN. Whistler, [24/31 July 1895], GUW #07017.

4: Manchester Examiner, Manchester, 2 May 1889.

5: Whistler to D. C. Thomson, [4/11 January 1892], GUW #06795.

6: D. C. Thomson to Whistler, 4 February 1893, GUW #05770.

7: 3rd exhibition, Society of Portrait Painters, London, 1893 (cat. no. 183).

8: A Collection of Selected Works by Painters of the English, French & Dutch Schools, Goupil Gallery, London, 1898 (cat. no. 22).

9: Whistler to C. L. Freer, [June 1902], GUW #11699.

10: Memorial Exhibition of the Works of the late James McNeill Whistler, First President of The International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, New Gallery, Regent Street, London, 1905 (cat. no. 13).

11: City of Bradford Exhibition, Bradford, 1904 (cat. no. 135).

12: YMSM 1980 [more], cat. no. 63.

13: Whistler to C. L. Freer, [June 1902], GUW #11699.

14: Pennell 1911 A [more], p. 129.

15: Pennell 1921C [more], repr. f.p. 153.

16: Whistler to Fantin-Latour, 16 August [1865], GUW #11477.

17: Pennell 1911 A [more], p. 129.

18: [20 July 1868], Diary, Maryland Historical Society Library, Manuscripts Division, Baltimore, MD.

19: Albumen print, stamp of A. Giraudon, 15 rue Bonaparte, Paris, Glasgow University Library, Special Collections, Whistler PH3/8.

20: MacDonald 2015 [more].

21: Whistler to Fantin-Latour, 16 August [1865], GUW #11477.

22: Kimberley Muir,'Cat. 8 The Artist in His Studio, 1865/66, 1895: Technical Summary,' in Whistler Paintings and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago, 2020, URL.

23: GUW #11477.

24: Gallatin 1913 B [more].

25: 'Mr. Whistler in His Studio', Pall Mall Budget, 2 February 1893, p. 163; reproduced in Stephanie L. Strother, 'Cat. 8 The Artist in His Studio, 1865/66, 1895: Curatorial Entry,' in Whistler Paintings and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago, 2020, URL.

26: GUW #09732.

27: Whistler to W. McN. Whistler, [24/31 July 1895], GUW #07017.

28: Kennedy to Whistler, 30 August 1895, Whistler to Kennedy, [12 September 1895], GUW #07257, #07258.

29: Pennell 1911 A [more], p. 129.

30: Kimberley Muir, 'Cat. 8 The Artist in His Studio, 1865/66, 1895: Technical Summary,' in Whistler Paintings and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago, 2020, URL.

31: Muir 2020, ibid, URL.

32: GUW #10718.

33: GUW #05032.

34: Muir 2020, op. cit., URL

35: Dr Sarah L. Parkerson Day, Report on frames, 2017.

36: 'Studio - Doctor' in list by Whistler, [1886/1887], formerly dated [4/11 January 1892], GUW #06795.

37: D. C. Thomson to Whistler, 23 January 1893, GUW #05769.

38: [28-29 January 1893], GUW #11653.

39: GUW #05770.

40: Whistler to D. C. Thomson, [18 March 1893], GUW #08221; Whistler to H. E. Whistler, [March/April 1893], GUW #06719.

41: [14 June/July 1893], GUW #07010.

42: [18 April 1894], GUW #11656.

43: [25 April 1894], GUW #03287.

44: [26 April 1894], GUW #03240.

45: [1/8 July 1895], GUW #07254.

46: Note dated 20 July 1895, GUW #09732.

47: [23 July 1895], GUW #06732.

48: Whistler to W. McN. Whistler, [24/31 July 1895], GUW #07017.

49: 30 August 1895, GUW #07257.

50: [12 September 1895], GUW #07258.

51: Whistler to H. E. Whistler, [13 October 1895], GUW #06734.

52: Kennedy to Whistler, 18 February 1896, GUW #07263.

53: Whistler to R. Birnie Philip, [3 December 1896], GUW #04686; and to W. McN. Whistler, [December 1896], GUW #07023.

54: GUW #07025.

55: Whistler to D. C. Thomson, [October 1897], GUW #08443; Pennell 1911 A [more], p. 127.

56: Manchester Examiner, 2 May 1889, press cutting in GUL Whistler PC 10, p. 92.

57: 30 April [1893], GUW #08230.

58: 'Art', The Spectator, 3 June 1893, p. 17.