The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler

YMSM 073
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso

Artist: James McNeill Whistler
Date: 1866
Collection: Tate Britain, London
Accession Number: N05065
Medium: oil
Support: canvas
Size: 58.6 x 75.9 cm (23 x 29 3/4")
Signature: 'Whistler.'
Inscription: 'Valparaiso. 66'
Frame: Grau Whistler, inscribed 'F. H. Grau, London, 1891' [16.5 cm]

Date

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso was signed and dated in 1866. 1 According to Whistler's diary for the voyage he undertook to South America, he left Southampton on 2 February 1866 and arrived in Valparaiso on 12 March, where he remained, except for occasional visits to Santiago and the surrounding countryside, until sailing for England early in September. 2

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain

According to Whistler, 'I made good use of the time, I painted the three Valparaiso pictures that are known and two others that have disappeared'. 3 Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso was one of the three 'known' Valparaiso pictures. The other two are Symphony in Grey and Green: The Ocean y072 and Nocturne in Blue and Gold: Valparaiso Bay y076.

The Tate dates this painting to 30 March 1866:

'Responding to the Spanish occupation of the Peruvian-owned Chincha Islands in 1864, the South American countries of Chile, Bolivia and Ecuador formed an alliance with Peru against Spain. In February 1866 Whistler left London for South America, in order to assist the Chilean cause. When he arrived in Chile on 12 March a squadron of six Spanish ships was blockading the country's main harbour, Valparaiso. In order to protect their own nationals and act as a neutral, peacekeeping force, the British, American and French governments had sent out their own fleets, who were also present. On 27 March the Spanish announced their intention to bombard the city. Although outraged by this act of aggression, the British, American and French fleets had no option but to withdraw. Whistler's picture almost certainly records the beginning of their withdrawal, on the evening of 30 March. The following day the Spanish bombarded the city, by which time Whistler had fled to the hills on horseback.' 4

Whistler's own account, given to the Pennells in 1900, was vivid and probably truthful, as far as his memory served, in remembering events several decades earlier:

'After that, came the bombardment. There was the beautiful bay with its curving shores, the town of Valparaiso on one side, on the other the long line of hills. And there, just at the entrance of the bay, was the Spanish fleet, and, in between, the English fleet and the French fleet and the American fleet and the Russian fleet, and all the other fleets. And when the morning came, with great circles and sweeps, they sailed out into the open sea, until the Spanish fleet alone remained. It drew up right in front of the town, and bang went a shell, and the bombardment began. The Chileans didn't pretend to defend themselves. The people all got out of the way, and I and the officials rode to the opposite hills where we could look on. The Spaniards conducted the performance in the most gentlemanly fashion; they just set fire to a few of the houses, and once, with some sense of fun, sent a shell whizzing over toward our hills. And then, I knew what a panic was. I and the officials turned and rode as hard as we could, anyhow, anywhere. The riding was splendid and I, as a West Point man, was head of the procession. By noon the performance was over. The Spanish fleet sailed again into position, the other fleets sailed in, sailors landed to help put out the fires, and I and the officials rode back into Valparaiso.' 5

Images

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, ca 1881, Baltimore Museum of Fine Arts
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, ca 1881, Baltimore Museum of Fine Arts

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, Goupil Album, 1892, GUL Whistler PH5/2
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, Goupil Album, 1892, GUL Whistler PH5/2

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, n.d., GUL Whistler PH4/7
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, n.d., GUL Whistler PH4/7

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, frame, detail
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, frame, detail

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, frame, detail
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, frame, detail

Symphony in Grey and Green: The Ocean, The Frick Collection
Symphony in Grey and Green: The Ocean, The Frick Collection

Subject

Titles

Several possible titles have been suggested:

'Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso' is the preferred title.

Description

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain

A view of a harbour, in horizontal format. The grey/green sea is calm under a darkening blue sky scattered with grey clouds, slightly warmed by a sunset glow. There are half a dozen tall sailing ships with sails spread in the bay, and many more ships are seen in the distance at right, inshore.

Site

Valparaiso, an important port on the coast of Chile, South America. 19

Discussing the political and naval situation at the time, Dr Frances Fowle records:

'We know from contemporary accounts that the Americans sent one iron-clad turreted ship and five steamers, and that the French and British fleets included frigates and gunboats. ... Whistler has depicted mainly sailing ships, some of which have started to unfurl their sails, ready to move towards the open sea. The only clearly visible flag is the French tricolour in the centre of the composition, silhouetted against the gathering violet and purple clouds.' 20

Technique

Composition

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso was painted over at least one figure composition, as explained by Professor Joyce H. Townsend:

'the recent digital X-radiograph is not easy to interpret, but there is a suggestion of an underlying image with large figures. Viewed in the same orientation as Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, there could be two full-length draped figures, one on either side of the vertical cross-bar, probably both extending from the lower edge at least three-quarters the height of the canvas, or else with the one on the right either leaning or seated. Even more debatably, there could be a draped figure placed beneath the cross-bar, not filling the full canvas height and therefore placed further back in the composition. There might be a suggestion of rounded objects in the foreground. The whole impression is fuzzy and this use might have been only a light sketch – or else the early painting was pretty thoroughly removed by cleaning with turpentine.

The infrared photograph, and the view in raking light from the left, also suggest two tall figures in an underlying image, but not the possible middle figure.

Much the same interpretation could be hazarded with the underlying image or light sketch done with the canvas rotated upside-down: in that case, the placement at different heights from the lower edge would suggest figures arranged within a space, set back to varying degrees.

If the canvas was indeed re-used, the first image might have been applied to the white pre-primed canvas. The white lower imprimatura would then have effaced it further, before Whistler applied the [pale pink] flesh-coloured imprimatura in order to paint Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso. That would account for the difficulty in imaging the earlier version.' 21

Technique

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain

According to Arthur Jerome Eddy (1859-1920), it was completed by Whistler 'at a single sitting, having prepared his colors in advance of the chosen hour.' 22 This, though impressive, is simply not true.

A report by Professor Townsend gives full details of recent examination of the painting:

'The "flesh colour" of the title refers to the artist’s pale flesh-coloured imprimatura, applied in two layers over a typical commercial double white priming made from lead white, chalk and oil, on canvas, its upper layer being more opaque. The lower layer of imprimatura contains only lead white and chalk in oil, conferring useful absorbency that enables the "dried" colour of the paint to reveal itself rapidly – which is good for sketching rather than detailed work. The upper flesh colour of the imprimatura includes traces of zinc white as well as lead white, possibly supplied ready-mixed in a tube, not from Whistler’s usual later London suppliers of pure lead white. The flesh colour is made from vermilion, red lake, synthetic ultramarine, bone black and raw sienna or umber, all in small quantities. ...

The composition seen today was developed largely in greatly-thinned paint, the horizon line and main clouds having been established first, without covering the whole surface with paint. Only the ship on the left was drawn in pencil, then painted to follow the drawing. Several of the hulls for ships were sketched in graphite pencil onto the dried imprimatura, while far more vertical lines were dashed in with light pencil strokes to suggest the masts of a multitude more than there are painted hulls now. Only a minority of these sketched lines became the masts of painted ships. Three of the four largest ships, including the one seen astern right of centre and nearest to the viewer, were not drawn in at all; they were painted onto not-yet-covered patches of imprimatura after numerous horizontal lines in graphite pencil had been applied rapidly to indicate their position by means of the outline of sails and cross-beams. Hull and sails were then painted together, using a small brush and single strokes of much-thinned paint. The red flag of this, the nearest ship, was added last.

For more distant ships, the paint was lightly applied as well as thinned, and the last application was a vertical brushstroke for the mast, that began on the deck and headed upwards, the brush almost wiping paint away rather than applying it. The clouds, once finished in more detail, thus overlie many potential masts. The sky was painted up to the shipping and water, with the last applications of paint.

The paint for the water and sky is quite thick by Whistler’s later standards, capable of concealing earlier brushstrokes, and it has retained the drag of the brush hairs as it dried. The masts were clearly painted with thinned paint, applied forcefully so that it has tended to form cracks along the brushstrokes. There are some drying defects that suggest Whistler had problems with his thinner (usually turpentine) evaporating too fast to form a continuous paint film – the unaccustomed temperature of Chile might have been the cause. The paint medium turns yellow on moderate heating, which suggests a medium modifier may have been used as well as a thinner. The fine pattern of cracks running perpendicular to the direction of the brushstrokes suggests this too.

The sky, clouds and water all consist of mixtures of pigments in lead white, including vermilion, red ochre, madder, mars yellow, synthetic ultramarine for the bluer sky, and cobalt and Prussian blues in the greener water, with bone black. Two red flags may be painted with an unusual type of madder lake, judging from their fluorescence in ultraviolet light. There is no evidence for colour loss.

The work is signed "Whistler" and inscribed "Valparaiso. 66", both being painted with separated letters at the lower left, and both sloping upwards to right.' 23

Conservation History

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, ca 1881, Baltimore Museum of Fine Arts
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, ca 1881, Baltimore Museum of Fine Arts

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, Goupil Album 1892
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, Goupil Album 1892

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, GUL Whistler PH4/7
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, GUL Whistler PH4/7

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain

In 1867 the art critic Philip Gilbert Hamerton (1834-1894) commented that it had 'deteriorated considerably since we first saw it.' 24

This Whistler furiously denied in a note dated (possibly misleadingly) November 1878, written under this press-cutting :

'Utterly and stupidly false! the picture is perfect - unaltered in condition and lovely - I saw it the other day in Mr. Howells possession! … My paintings never alter for the reason that they are painted quite simply -' 25

Professor Townsend's report on the painting, already quoted above, adds:

'A strip on the right side was more thinly varnished in the past, or else more thoroughly cleaned during varnish removal. The canvas has been trimmed, likely when it was lined with glue paste, without unduly impregnating the canvas with glue as has occurred in other cases, and it was given a new stretcher, at an unknown date prior to 1963.

In 1963 some yellow varnish, presumably of natural resin type and possibly the original varnish, was removed. A synthetic resin varnish consisting of cyclohexanone was applied at that time, and damages were retouched using the acrylic resin Paraloid B-67, presumably in the sea and sky where they are now visible on close examination. Traces of an earlier yellowed natural resin-type varnish remain beneath this, in particular in the cloud to right of centre. Together, these varnishes confer a moderately yellowed appearance.' 26

Frame

1866: the style and whereabouts of the first frame are unknown.

1879: Whistler asked Charles Augustus Howell (1840?-1890) to get 'the Valparaiso' framed by Foord and Dickinson for exhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery. 27 This frame would have been decorated with a painted seigaiha (blue sea wave) pattern similar to that seen on Nocturne: Blue and Gold - Old Battersea Bridge y140.

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, frame, detail
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, frame, detail

1890: in November 1890 Whistler asked Graham Robertson, who had just bought the painting, to send it to Frederick Henry Grau (1859-1892):

'Do take this occasion, and send for Grau - and tell him to make you at once one of my beautiful new frames for the Valparaiso - Of exactly the same gold as that he has used for me lately - The old frame is altogether to rickety - & moreover it neither fitted (too large - Grau should have the "sight" at least an [eighth] of an inch smaller all round) nor was it of the right colour - Your picture in the new frame will look five times as stately and beautiful.' 28

Furthermore, he urged another patron, William Cleverly Alexander (1840-1916) to have a similar frame made:

'I want you so much to see The "Valparaiso" at Mr Graham Robertson's - 23. Rutland Gate. ...What I want is that you should see the beautiful effect of my new frame - and then let my man - Mr Grau. 570. Fulham Road make one for your Nocturne - It will gain three times in stateliness and charm.' 29

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, frame, detail
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, frame, detail

1891: The painted Foord & Dickinson frame of 1878 was replaced by the present one, a Grau Whistler frame: [FD] 36 x 42 ½" (91.4 x 107.9 cm), [MW] 6 ½" (16.5 cm). On the back of the frame Whistler’s framemaker has pencilled ‘F. H. Grau, London, 1891’. 30

History

Provenance

In May 1879 Whistler asked Howell to send 'the Valparaiso' to Foord & Dickinson to be framed for exhibition at the Grosvenor Gallery. 31 Writing of the period of about 1878-1879, Thomas Robert Way (1861-1913) stated that 'the "Valparaiso Harbour" sunset picture, then belonging to Howell, [was] for a short time in my father's keeping'. 32 His father, Thomas Way (1837-1915), was one of the chief creditors at the time of Whistler's bankruptcy, and partly responsible for the fair distribution of Whistler's effects. However, another of the South American pictures, Sketch for 'Nocturne in Blue and Gold: Valparaiso Bay' y074, might have been the picture referenced by Way junior.

'I am pleased', Whistler wrote to Graham Robertson in 1890, 'that two of my pet works belong to you.' 33 The 'pet works' were this painting and Arrangement in Brown and Black: Portrait of Miss Rosa Corder y203.

Exhibitions

1867: It was probably this painting that was sent by Whistler to the French Gallery, after the opening of the show, so that it was not catalogued. According to the The Athenaeum it represented:

'dusk in a harbour of the great ocean, probably the pool of Valparaiso, although there is not enough of land represented to enable one to identify the locality. The painter's theme was rather the greyish green of twilight sinking on the sea, and ships becalmed, at anchor, or gently moving', and the critic commented on the way in which Whistler had given 'an aspect of sleepy motion to the vessels, and ... conveyed to the spectator the rolling, seemingly breathing, surface of the sea with a power that is magical.' 34

Ignace-Henri-Jean-Théodore Fantin-Latour (1836-1904) suggested that Whistler should send 'ta marine de Valparaiso' with At the Piano y024 to the Exposition Universelle in 1867. 35 Unfortunately Whistler's paintings were (according to him) poorly displayed; he was not invited to exhibit in the British section of the Exposition, and his pictures were hung in the American section in what he later complained was a 'corridor where they have been more or less damned by every body.' 36

37 Philip Gilbert Hamerton (1834-1894) described it as 'Sunset on the Pacific' and commented that it had 'deteriorated considerably since we first saw it.' 38 This Whistler later denied emphatically. 39

1872: The early history of this painting is unclear, and there may be gaps in its early exhibition history.

Symphony in Grey and Green: The Ocean, The Frick Collection
Symphony in Grey and Green: The Ocean, The Frick Collection

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Tate Britain

In 1872 the art critic of the Pall Mall Gazette singled out the painting of the Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama (1864, Philadelphia Museum of Art) by Edouard Manet (1832-1883), and compared it to unspecified works by Whistler, as sharing certain qualities, particularly a common sensitivity in the depiction of 'luminous shadow and silver tone and delicacy'. 40 It is possible that the critic had in mind another Valparaiso painting, Symphony in Grey and Green: The Ocean y072, which was on show at the 6th Winter Exhibition of Cabinet Pictures in Oil, Dudley Gallery, London, 1872 (cat. no. 37), but it is also possible that Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso was also on view, either at Durand Ruel's gallery in Bond Street, or in the Dudley Gallery, but under another title.

Later scholars have compared Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso y073 with Manet's early marine views of 1864-1865, especially the Battle of the Kearsarge and the Alabama. 41

1879: C. A. Howell noted that a review of the Grosvenor Gallery show in Scribner's Monthly referred to 'my picture of "Valparaiso" ' as having more 'beauty' than Whistler's more recent works. 42 The painting received some approving notices in the papers: the London Evening Standard described it as 'among Mr. Whistler's impressions of nature … Many ships float, phantom-like, on a wide sea, ' and The Athenaeum called it 'a piece of pictorial magic, a mystery of lovely harmonies in colour and most delicate hues.' 43 It was also one of four paintings included in a cartoon, 'A Gaiety in Gilt, and three Noctoffs in a Twinkle. Connie soit qui mal y pense', in The Mask, on 17 May 1879, where it was straddled by the long legs of Connie Gilchrist (1864-1946)!

1891: As soon as it was bought by a complaisant owner, W. Graham Robertson, Whistler besieged him with requests to loan it to exhibitions: 'I have had a letter from der Herr Doctor Paulus, Director of the Exhibition in Münich, begging that your two pictures, which he has just seen in Paris, & of which he is wildly enamoured, may be allowed to go on from the Champ de Mars ... to the Münich Exhibition.' 44 And so it was sent by Durand Ruel from Paris to Munich, and by the following February, Whistler was telling D. C. Thomson to borrow it for his forthcoming retrospective at Goupil's. 45

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, Goupil Album, 1892, GUL Whistler PH5/2
Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, photograph, Goupil Album, 1892, GUL Whistler PH5/2

1892: It was very well received at Goupil's in 1892; for instance, the art critic of the St James's Gazette wrote:

'Most people will have little hesitation about the picture of Valparaiso Roads (No. 13), full of shipping and with a distant landscape in outline. As a mere combination of colour it is beautiful; but as a seapiece (to use the familiar phraseology which is infinitely preferable to that of "Whistlerite" literature), it is hardly less interesting.' 46

Perhaps the most enthusiastic comment was in a press cutting kept by Whistler, Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer of 21 March 1892:

'The marine pieces in the Exhibition show Mr Whistler in a more complex mood, but there is at least one which the ordinary spectator, who has not been educated up to "nocturnes" and "harmonys [sic]," will not fail to appreciate. It is the "Crépuscule in flesh Colour and green," in other words, the view of Valparaiso. Here the artist shows the effect of light breaking through the clouds behind the rigging of vessels anchored in harbour. There is a fine sense of poetry in the way in which the soft golden sunlight touches the masts and sails of the ships, and, penetrating beyond them, strikes gently on the green surface of the water.' 47

The Manchester Guardian admitted Whistler's growing reputation, 'we imagine that few will care to own to-day that they do not appreciate such lovely and essentially truthful "Impressions" as the two Valparaisos, the one a transparent night scene, the other an opalescent sunrise.' 48 Likewise The Observer commented:

'We now come to a collection of Mr. Whistler's favourite "Nocturnes" (the best being the two Valparaiso pictures, of which one is called a "Crépuscule"), which, though in several instances mere studies in fog and haze, are so full of artistic taste and of such clever work as to merit the attention and the regard of everyone with any sense of colour. That Mr. Whistler will be thought a great painter by a larger number of people than heretofore will no doubt be a satisfactory and highly desirable result of this exhibition.' 49

The painting was selected for reproduction in the album recording Whistler's exhibition at Goupil's, although Whistler complained of the proofs that 'some of the Valparaiso Crepuscule's are too black.' 50

1893: With the Goupil exhibition barely over, Whistler asked the New York dealer E. G. Kennedy to request the painting of Valparaiso for World's Columbian Exposition, Department of Fine Arts, Chicago, 1893, but Robertson politely refused to lend the painting again, for such an extended period. 51

1894: In spite of this, just over a year later, Whistler asked if he could borrow it for Antwerp:

'You must acknowledge that I have not troubled you for years - and I quite admited [sic] all that you said about the Chicago business.

But this is for Antwerp - There is to be, as I daresay you know, a great International affair there this May - and I have been specially invited - and I would, of all things, so much like to be represented by the Rosa Corder & your Pacific.

They would make a splendid show for both of us! - and you should be at peace afterwards for ages - I promise you -

Write me a line to say that they shall go and I will send all further details -

Besides I will find you something else to take their place while they are away.' 52

Astonishingly, Robertson agreed, and his painting must have been the 'Valparaiso' exhibited in Antwerp in 1894, and sent to the curator with instructions on the order in which to display the paintings. Whistler's drawing, Paintings for exhibition in Antwerp m1427, includes Nocturne: Black and Gold - The Fire Wheel y169, Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso, Arrangement in Brown and Black: Portrait of Miss Rosa Corder y203, Symphony in White, No. 2: The Little White Girl y052, and Nocturne: Blue and Silver - Battersea Reach y152. 53 Charles Sprague Pearce (1851-1914) wrote that the group was hung in the order 'Valparaiso / Miss Corder / Fireworks / Battersea reach / Sarasate / Little Girl in White', and was proposed for the 'medal of honor', but placed 'Hors Concours' when it was realised that some of them had been painted before 1885 and were therefore ineligible. 54

1897: Whistler wrote to Robertson yet again, 'I almost venture to believe that I am in the position of one who has not troubled you for a long time! And these Copenhagen Gentlemen are most anxious to see your picture - so that I have promised to use my influence with [you] if I have any!' 55

1899: It would seem that Robertson had by this time had enough! He did not lend to Copenhagen or (in 1899) St Petersburg, at which point he wrote, 'You know of old that the extraction of my - or rather your - pictures from me is a serious operation and not to be lightly undertaken so you will be prepared to hear that I have found myself unable to part with them in this case.' 56 Would he lend it to Venice instead?, asked Whistler, and Robertson agreed, though 'I hate it's going, "I will not deceive you", but I also hate to refuse a request of yours so – go it must.' 57

1905: It was one of the paintings recommended by Antonin Proust (1832-1905) to his mother at the Whistler memorial exhibition in Paris in 1905. 58 Proust had met Whistler once, probably through Robert de Montesquiou-Fezensac (1855-1921). In 1906 (the year after the memorial show), Proust started to write À la recherche du temps perdu in which the character 'Elstir' was in part inspired by Whistler.

Bibliography

Catalogues Raisonnés

Authored by Whistler

Catalogues 1855-1905

Newspapers 1855-1905

Journals 1855-1905

Monographs

Books on Whistler

Books, General

Catalogues 1906-Present

Journals 1906-Present

Websites

Unpublished

Other


Notes:

1: YMSM 1980 [more] (cat. no. 73).

2: Notebook, [February 1866/January 1867], GUW #04335.

3: Pennell 1921C [more], p. 43.

4: Tate website at http://www.tate.org.uk; see also Sutherland 2008 [more], and Sutherland 2014 [more], pp. 95-97.

5: Pennell 1921C [more], p. 42.

6: 85th exhibition Salon de 1867, Palais des Champs Elysées, Paris, 1867, 1st edition (cat. no. 71) and 2nd edition (cat. no. 78).

7: III Summer Exhibition, Grosvenor Gallery, London, 1879 (cat. no. 56).Blackburn 1879 [more] (cat. no. 56).

8: Photograph, G. A. Lucas Collection, Baltimore Museum of Art.

9: List, formerly dated [4/11 January 1892], GUW #06795.

10: 1st exhibition, Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Champs de Mars, Paris, 1891 (cat. no. 937).

11: VI. Internationale Kunst-Ausstellung, Königlicher Glaspalast, Munich, 1892 (cat. no. 1950c).

12: Nocturnes, Marines & Chevalet Pieces, Goupil Gallery, London, 1892 (cat. no. 13).

13: Whistler to E. G. Kennedy, [20 October / 10 November 1892], GUW #09700.

14: Whistler to D. C. Thomson, [12 May 1893], GUW #08233.

15: III Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte della Città di Venezia, Venice, 1899 (cat. no. 59).

16: Memorial Exhibition of the Works of the late James McNeill Whistler, First President of The International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, New Gallery, Regent Street, London, 1905 (cat. no. 93).

17: Œuvres de James McNeill Whistler, Palais de l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1905 (cat. no. 59).

18: YMSM 1980 [more] (cat. no. 73).

19: See Sutherland 2008 [more].

20: Tate website at http://www.tate.org.uk.

21: Joyce H. Townsend, technical and conservation report, Tate, April 2018.

22: Eddy 1903 [more], p. 23.

23: Joyce H. Townsend, technical and conservation report, Tate, April 2018. See also Hackney, Stephen, ‘Colour and tone in Whistler’s “nocturnes” and “harmonies” 1871-72’, The Burlington Magazine, 1994, vol. 136, pp. 695-99. Hackney, Stephen, and Joyce Townsend, 'J. A. M. Whistler: Cremorne Lights 1872', in Hackney, Stephen, R. Jones, and Joyce Townsend (eds), Paint and Purpose: A Study of Technique in British art, Tate Publishing, London, 1999, pp. 86-89.

24: Hamerton 1867 [more], at p. 691.

25: Note in GUL Whistler PC, p. 3. Whistler probably did not make this response in 1867. He wrote it alongside the original 1867 press cutting in an album, possibly in 1878 (he dated it 'Nov. 1878', but may in fact have written it later.

26: Joyce H. Townsend, technical and conservation report, Tate, April 2018.

27: [20/27 April 1879], GUW #02840, and [May 1879], GUW #02822.

28: 26 November [1890], GUW #09403.

29: [14 February 1892], GUW #07575; also Whistler to R. A. Alexander, [15/28 February 1892], GUW #07580.

30: Dr Sarah L. Parkerson Day, Report on frames, 2017; see also Parkerson 2007 [more].

31: [May 1879], GUW #02822, with press cuttings annotated by Howell.

32: Way 1912 [more], p. 32.

33: [December 1890], GUW #09383.

34: 'The Winter Exhibition at the French Gallery', The Athenaeum, 5 January 1867, pp. 22-23.

35: 21 February 1867, GUW #01084.

36: Whistler to G. A. Lucas, [6 April 1867], and 20 November 1867, GUW #09192 and #09194; and W. M. Rossetti, quoted in Pennell 1908 [more], vol. 1, p. 140.

37:

38: Hamerton 1867 [more], at p. 691.

39: Note in GUL Whistler PC, p. 3. Whistler probably did not make this response in 1867. He wrote it alongside the original 1867 press cutting in an album, possibly in 1878 (he dated it 'Nov. 1878', but may in fact have written it later.

40: 'The Society of French Artists', Pall Mall Gazette, 28 November 1872, p. 11.

41: For example, Dorment, Richard, and Margaret F. MacDonald, James McNeill Whistler, Tate Gallery, London, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, and National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1994-1995 (cat. no. 44).

42: Note on an unidentified press cutting, [August 1879], GUW #02795; Brownell 1879 [more].

43: 'The Grosvenor Gallery', London Evening Standard, 1 May 1879, p. 2; 'The Grosvenor Gallery Exhibition', The Athenaeum, 10 May 1879, pp. 606-08, at p. 607.

44: [May/June 1891], GUW #09382.

45: H. E. Moulun to Whistler, 25 July 1891, GUW #00983; Whistler to Thomson, [20 February 1892], GUW #08219.

46: 'Art Exhibitions. Mr. Whistler's Pictures', St James's Gazette, 21 March 1892; press cutting, GUL Whistler PC 13 p. 19.

47: Anon., 'Notes on Current Topics', Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer, Leeds, 21 March 1892, p. 4; press cutting in GUL Whistler PC 13.

48: 'The Whistler Exhibition', Manchester Guardian, 25 March 1892; press cutting in GUL Whistler PC 13, p. 29.

49: 'Mr. Whistler at Goupil's', The Observer, London, 27 March 1892, press cutting in GUL Whistler PC 13, p. 31.

50: Whistler to D. C. Thomson, [12 May 1893], GUW #08233.

51: Whistler to E. G. Kennedy, [20 October/10 November 1892], GUW #09700, and, the next day, GUW #09699; Robertson to Goupil & Co., [12 January 1893], GUW #05198.

52: 14 March [1894], GUW #09405.

53: Whistler to J. M. Stewart, [19/26 March 1894], GUW #10552.

54: Whistler to Robertson, [18 March 1894], GUW #09406. C. S. Pearce to Whistler, 28 July 1894, GUW #00192; see also Whistler's reply, [29/31 July 1894], GUW #00193.

55: [March/April 1897], GUW #09411.

56: Robertson to Whistler, [1/8 January 1899], GUW #05199.

57: Whistler to Robertson, [5/12 January 1899], GUW #09412; reply, quoted, [8/15 January 1899], GUW #05200; and Whistler's letter of thanks, [18 March 1899], GUW #09409.

58: [13 or 14 June 1905], quoted by Painter, George D. (ed.), Marcel Proust – Letters to his mother, London, 1956.